Aim: To analyse the diversity and distribution of oceanic pelagic cephalopods along the eastern Pacific Ocean assessing the existence of biogeographic structuring, and the role of physical variables in generating geographical patterns. We hypothesized that the control by environmental factors, and the effect of geometric constraints, determine the range size and limits of distribution of oceanic cephalopods along the eastern Pacific Ocean, generating a latitudinal gradient in species richness. Location: Eastern Pacific Ocean (60°N – 60°S), from the Gulf of Alaska to the Southern Ocean. Methods: Based on a literature review and >5,000 records obtained from collections, we constructed a presence–absence matrix including 61 latitudinal bands (2° each) along the Eastern Pacific, and estimated species richness and range endpoints at each band. Biogeographic units were determined by means of multivariate analyses. Species richness was compared with null model predictions in order to test for the existence of geometric constraints using the Mid-Domain Null model. The effects on species richness of environmental variables (temperature, salinity and oxygen) were evaluated separately for surface and depth (0–1,000 m) data, by means of ordinary least squares regression and simultaneous autoregressive models. Rapoport's pattern was assessed by applying the Stevens’ method and the range midpoint method. Results: Species richness was high across the tropics and decreased towards the both poles. We identified five biogeographic units, highlighting two major distribution breaks at 40°N and 42°S. Species richness was strongly related with environmental variables, although the combined variables accounted for a large fraction of the variance between 0 and 1,000 m (R2 = 0.99), while temperature was the best single predictor at the surface (R2 = 0.98). Species richness curves showed a mid-domain effect (MDE), and the mean latitudinal range was higher in the tropics and at warm latitudes, generating an inverse Rapoport's pattern. Main conclusions: Along the eastern Pacific Ocean oceanic cephalopods exhibit both a clear biogeographic patterning and an interhemispheric (poleward decreasing) diversity gradient, which appear strongly related with physical factors and external forcing, as well as with a MDE as a seemingly consequence of the naturally bounded domain of the Eastern Pacific.
Áreas temáticas de ASJC Scopus
- Ecología, evolución, comportamiento y sistemática