Computational calculations at B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) and MP2/6-311++G(d,p) levels were employed to analyze the structure and conformation of 1,3-bis(4-bromophenyl)azulene (1), 1,3-bis(2-thienyl)azulene (2), and 1,3-bis(2-pyrrollyl)azulene (3) in order to rationalize the out-of-plane deformation found in the azulene cores of 1 and 2 in the crystalline state, whereas compound 3 shows a totally planar azulene moiety. Our results indicate that 1,3-disubstituted azulenes possess two almost equally stable and easily convertible minimum energy conformers, which differ in the relative orientation of the substituent groups and in the planarity degree of the azulene core. An absolute planarity index (P) is introduced to quantify the out-of-plane distortion found in the azulenes under study. The aromaticity of minimum energy conformers was evaluated by means of geometric (HOMA), magnetic (NICS), and energetic (the frequency of the lowest out-of-plane vibration, νmin) aromaticity indicators, which suggest that compound 3 possesses the most aromatic azulene core within the group. Calculated molecular dipole moments suggest that the conformation of 1,3-disubstituted azulenes in the crystalline state can be explained in terms of electrostatic intermolecular interactions rather than relative stability of planar and non-planar conformers.
Áreas temáticas de ASJC Scopus
- Física de la materia condensada
- Química física y teórica