The spectacular evolution of Supernova 1996al over 15 yr: A low-energy explosion of a stripped massive star in a highly structured environment

S. Benetti, N. N. Chugai, V. P. Utrobin, E. Cappellaro, F. Patat, A. Pastorello, M. Turatto, G. Cupani, R. Neuhäuser, N. Caldwell, G. Pignata, L. Tomasella

Resultado de la investigación: Article

13 Citas (Scopus)

Resumen

Spectrophotometry of SN 1996al carried out throughout 15 yr is presented. The early photometry suggests that SN 1996al is a linear Type II supernova, with an absolute peak of MV ~ -18.2 mag. Early spectra present broad asymmetric Balmer emissions, with superimposed narrow lines with P-Cygni profile, and He I features with asymmetric broad emission components. The analysis of the line profiles shows that the H and He broad components form in the same region of the ejecta. By day +142, the Hα profile dramatically changes: the narrow P-Cygni profile disappears, and the Hα is fitted by three emission components that will be detected over the remaining 15 yr of the supernova (SN) monitoring campaign. Instead, the He I emissions become progressively narrower and symmetric. A sudden increase in flux of all He I lines is observed between 300 and 600 d. Models show that the SN luminosity is sustained by the interaction of low-mass (~1.15 M) ejecta, expelled in a low kinetic energy (~1.6 × 1050 erg) explosion, with highly asymmetric circumstellar medium. The detection of Hα emission in pre-explosion archive images suggests that the progenitor was most likely a massive star (~25 M ZAMS) that had lost a large fraction of its hydrogen envelope before explosion, and was hence embedded in a H-rich cocoon. The low-mass ejecta and modest kinetic energy of the explosion are explained with massive fallback of material into the compact remnant, a 7-8-M black hole.

Idioma originalEnglish
Páginas (desde-hasta)3296-3317
Número de páginas22
PublicaciónMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volumen456
N.º3
DOI
EstadoPublished - 1 mar 2016

Huella dactilar

massive stars
supernovae
explosions
explosion
ejecta
energy
profiles
kinetic energy
cocoon
spectrophotometry
erg
photometry
envelopes
luminosity
hydrogen
monitoring
interactions

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Citar esto

Benetti, S. ; Chugai, N. N. ; Utrobin, V. P. ; Cappellaro, E. ; Patat, F. ; Pastorello, A. ; Turatto, M. ; Cupani, G. ; Neuhäuser, R. ; Caldwell, N. ; Pignata, G. ; Tomasella, L. / The spectacular evolution of Supernova 1996al over 15 yr : A low-energy explosion of a stripped massive star in a highly structured environment. En: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 2016 ; Vol. 456, N.º 3. pp. 3296-3317.
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title = "The spectacular evolution of Supernova 1996al over 15 yr: A low-energy explosion of a stripped massive star in a highly structured environment",
abstract = "Spectrophotometry of SN 1996al carried out throughout 15 yr is presented. The early photometry suggests that SN 1996al is a linear Type II supernova, with an absolute peak of MV ~ -18.2 mag. Early spectra present broad asymmetric Balmer emissions, with superimposed narrow lines with P-Cygni profile, and He I features with asymmetric broad emission components. The analysis of the line profiles shows that the H and He broad components form in the same region of the ejecta. By day +142, the Hα profile dramatically changes: the narrow P-Cygni profile disappears, and the Hα is fitted by three emission components that will be detected over the remaining 15 yr of the supernova (SN) monitoring campaign. Instead, the He I emissions become progressively narrower and symmetric. A sudden increase in flux of all He I lines is observed between 300 and 600 d. Models show that the SN luminosity is sustained by the interaction of low-mass (~1.15 M⊙) ejecta, expelled in a low kinetic energy (~1.6 × 1050 erg) explosion, with highly asymmetric circumstellar medium. The detection of Hα emission in pre-explosion archive images suggests that the progenitor was most likely a massive star (~25 M⊙ ZAMS) that had lost a large fraction of its hydrogen envelope before explosion, and was hence embedded in a H-rich cocoon. The low-mass ejecta and modest kinetic energy of the explosion are explained with massive fallback of material into the compact remnant, a 7-8-M⊙ black hole.",
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Benetti, S, Chugai, NN, Utrobin, VP, Cappellaro, E, Patat, F, Pastorello, A, Turatto, M, Cupani, G, Neuhäuser, R, Caldwell, N, Pignata, G & Tomasella, L 2016, 'The spectacular evolution of Supernova 1996al over 15 yr: A low-energy explosion of a stripped massive star in a highly structured environment', Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 456, n.º 3, pp. 3296-3317. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stv2811

The spectacular evolution of Supernova 1996al over 15 yr : A low-energy explosion of a stripped massive star in a highly structured environment. / Benetti, S.; Chugai, N. N.; Utrobin, V. P.; Cappellaro, E.; Patat, F.; Pastorello, A.; Turatto, M.; Cupani, G.; Neuhäuser, R.; Caldwell, N.; Pignata, G.; Tomasella, L.

En: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 456, N.º 3, 01.03.2016, p. 3296-3317.

Resultado de la investigación: Article

TY - JOUR

T1 - The spectacular evolution of Supernova 1996al over 15 yr

T2 - A low-energy explosion of a stripped massive star in a highly structured environment

AU - Benetti, S.

AU - Chugai, N. N.

AU - Utrobin, V. P.

AU - Cappellaro, E.

AU - Patat, F.

AU - Pastorello, A.

AU - Turatto, M.

AU - Cupani, G.

AU - Neuhäuser, R.

AU - Caldwell, N.

AU - Pignata, G.

AU - Tomasella, L.

PY - 2016/3/1

Y1 - 2016/3/1

N2 - Spectrophotometry of SN 1996al carried out throughout 15 yr is presented. The early photometry suggests that SN 1996al is a linear Type II supernova, with an absolute peak of MV ~ -18.2 mag. Early spectra present broad asymmetric Balmer emissions, with superimposed narrow lines with P-Cygni profile, and He I features with asymmetric broad emission components. The analysis of the line profiles shows that the H and He broad components form in the same region of the ejecta. By day +142, the Hα profile dramatically changes: the narrow P-Cygni profile disappears, and the Hα is fitted by three emission components that will be detected over the remaining 15 yr of the supernova (SN) monitoring campaign. Instead, the He I emissions become progressively narrower and symmetric. A sudden increase in flux of all He I lines is observed between 300 and 600 d. Models show that the SN luminosity is sustained by the interaction of low-mass (~1.15 M⊙) ejecta, expelled in a low kinetic energy (~1.6 × 1050 erg) explosion, with highly asymmetric circumstellar medium. The detection of Hα emission in pre-explosion archive images suggests that the progenitor was most likely a massive star (~25 M⊙ ZAMS) that had lost a large fraction of its hydrogen envelope before explosion, and was hence embedded in a H-rich cocoon. The low-mass ejecta and modest kinetic energy of the explosion are explained with massive fallback of material into the compact remnant, a 7-8-M⊙ black hole.

AB - Spectrophotometry of SN 1996al carried out throughout 15 yr is presented. The early photometry suggests that SN 1996al is a linear Type II supernova, with an absolute peak of MV ~ -18.2 mag. Early spectra present broad asymmetric Balmer emissions, with superimposed narrow lines with P-Cygni profile, and He I features with asymmetric broad emission components. The analysis of the line profiles shows that the H and He broad components form in the same region of the ejecta. By day +142, the Hα profile dramatically changes: the narrow P-Cygni profile disappears, and the Hα is fitted by three emission components that will be detected over the remaining 15 yr of the supernova (SN) monitoring campaign. Instead, the He I emissions become progressively narrower and symmetric. A sudden increase in flux of all He I lines is observed between 300 and 600 d. Models show that the SN luminosity is sustained by the interaction of low-mass (~1.15 M⊙) ejecta, expelled in a low kinetic energy (~1.6 × 1050 erg) explosion, with highly asymmetric circumstellar medium. The detection of Hα emission in pre-explosion archive images suggests that the progenitor was most likely a massive star (~25 M⊙ ZAMS) that had lost a large fraction of its hydrogen envelope before explosion, and was hence embedded in a H-rich cocoon. The low-mass ejecta and modest kinetic energy of the explosion are explained with massive fallback of material into the compact remnant, a 7-8-M⊙ black hole.

KW - Supernovae: general

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