The response of nitrifying microbial assemblages to ammonium (NH4+) enrichment from salmon farm activities in a northern Chilean Fjord

Claudia Elizondo-Patrone, Klaudia Hernández, Beatriz Yannicelli, Lasse Mork Olsen, Verónica Molina

Resultado de la investigación: Article

8 Citas (Scopus)

Resumen

The consequences of aquaculture include alterations in nitrogen cycling in aquatic environments that may lead to ecosystem degradation. Herein salmon aquaculture release of ammonium (NH4+) to the water column and its effects on natural archaea and bacteria ammonia-oxidizers (AOA and AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) community structure were studied in the Comau fjord using molecular approaches, such as: cloning (AOA and AOB richness), qPCR for C. Nitrosopumilus maritimus (AOA) and Nitrospina sp. (NOB) abundance (DNA) and RT-qPCR only for Nitrospina sp activity (RNA). Sampling was carried out in brackish (0.7-25 salinity, <5 m depth) and marine (>30 salinity, 25 m depth) waters during contrasting salmon production periods: rest (winter 2012), growth and harvest (summer and winter 2013). During the rest period, the highest NH4+ concentration was observed at Vodudahue River, whereas during productive periods NH4+ accumulated in the brackish layer inside salmon cages and in the vicinty (up to 700 m distance from the cages). The nitrifier community from the fjord reference station (Stn-C) was characterized by C. N. maritimus (AOA) and Nitrosomonas sp. (AOB) sequences affiliated with cosmopolitan ecotypes (e.g., marine, freshwater, hydrothermal), maxima abundances of C. N. maritimus (AOA) and Nitrospina sp. and extreme ranges of Nitrospina sp. activity occurred in the brackish layer. During productive periods, abundances of C. N. maritimus were co-varied with NH4+ concentrations inside salmon cages (summer) and the adjacent areas (winter). Productive periods were characterized by lower abundances but more homogeneity between brackish and marine areas than for the Stn-C nitrifiers. The physiological state of Nitrospina sp. estimated from cDNA:DNA ratios indicated higher growth during winter 2013 associated with NH4+ enrichment derived from production and river input. Our results suggest that in Comau Fjord, NH4+ enrichment events occur during salmon production and also naturally by river inputs, supporting an abundant and active nitrifying community potentially processing only part of the extra NH4+ that occurs, predominantly outside the salmon cages. Our work highlights the abundance and activities of nitrifying communities and identifies these communities as being sensitive to increased loads of NH4+.

Idioma originalEnglish
Páginas (desde-hasta)131-142
Número de páginas12
PublicaciónEstuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science
Volumen166
DOI
EstadoPublished - 5 dic 2015

Huella dactilar

Nitrospina
fjord
salmon
ammonium
farm
farms
cages
winter
nitrite
bacterium
aquaculture
nitrites
rivers
river
bacteria
DNA
salinity
Nitrosomonas
ecotype
summer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oceanography
  • Aquatic Science

Citar esto

Elizondo-Patrone, Claudia ; Hernández, Klaudia ; Yannicelli, Beatriz ; Olsen, Lasse Mork ; Molina, Verónica. / The response of nitrifying microbial assemblages to ammonium (NH4+) enrichment from salmon farm activities in a northern Chilean Fjord. En: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 2015 ; Vol. 166. pp. 131-142.
@article{2c1b492dff9c460f972e48e8f92ff90d,
title = "The response of nitrifying microbial assemblages to ammonium (NH4+) enrichment from salmon farm activities in a northern Chilean Fjord",
abstract = "The consequences of aquaculture include alterations in nitrogen cycling in aquatic environments that may lead to ecosystem degradation. Herein salmon aquaculture release of ammonium (NH4+) to the water column and its effects on natural archaea and bacteria ammonia-oxidizers (AOA and AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) community structure were studied in the Comau fjord using molecular approaches, such as: cloning (AOA and AOB richness), qPCR for C. Nitrosopumilus maritimus (AOA) and Nitrospina sp. (NOB) abundance (DNA) and RT-qPCR only for Nitrospina sp activity (RNA). Sampling was carried out in brackish (0.7-25 salinity, <5 m depth) and marine (>30 salinity, 25 m depth) waters during contrasting salmon production periods: rest (winter 2012), growth and harvest (summer and winter 2013). During the rest period, the highest NH4+ concentration was observed at Vodudahue River, whereas during productive periods NH4+ accumulated in the brackish layer inside salmon cages and in the vicinty (up to 700 m distance from the cages). The nitrifier community from the fjord reference station (Stn-C) was characterized by C. N. maritimus (AOA) and Nitrosomonas sp. (AOB) sequences affiliated with cosmopolitan ecotypes (e.g., marine, freshwater, hydrothermal), maxima abundances of C. N. maritimus (AOA) and Nitrospina sp. and extreme ranges of Nitrospina sp. activity occurred in the brackish layer. During productive periods, abundances of C. N. maritimus were co-varied with NH4+ concentrations inside salmon cages (summer) and the adjacent areas (winter). Productive periods were characterized by lower abundances but more homogeneity between brackish and marine areas than for the Stn-C nitrifiers. The physiological state of Nitrospina sp. estimated from cDNA:DNA ratios indicated higher growth during winter 2013 associated with NH4+ enrichment derived from production and river input. Our results suggest that in Comau Fjord, NH4+ enrichment events occur during salmon production and also naturally by river inputs, supporting an abundant and active nitrifying community potentially processing only part of the extra NH4+ that occurs, predominantly outside the salmon cages. Our work highlights the abundance and activities of nitrifying communities and identifies these communities as being sensitive to increased loads of NH4+.",
keywords = "Ammonium (NH) enrichment, Nitrifying communities, Nitrospina sp., Patagonian fjords, Salmon farming",
author = "Claudia Elizondo-Patrone and Klaudia Hern{\'a}ndez and Beatriz Yannicelli and Olsen, {Lasse Mork} and Ver{\'o}nica Molina",
year = "2015",
month = "12",
day = "5",
doi = "10.1016/j.ecss.2015.03.021",
language = "English",
volume = "166",
pages = "131--142",
journal = "Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science",
issn = "0272-7714",
publisher = "Academic Press Inc.",

}

The response of nitrifying microbial assemblages to ammonium (NH4+) enrichment from salmon farm activities in a northern Chilean Fjord. / Elizondo-Patrone, Claudia; Hernández, Klaudia; Yannicelli, Beatriz; Olsen, Lasse Mork; Molina, Verónica.

En: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, Vol. 166, 05.12.2015, p. 131-142.

Resultado de la investigación: Article

TY - JOUR

T1 - The response of nitrifying microbial assemblages to ammonium (NH4+) enrichment from salmon farm activities in a northern Chilean Fjord

AU - Elizondo-Patrone, Claudia

AU - Hernández, Klaudia

AU - Yannicelli, Beatriz

AU - Olsen, Lasse Mork

AU - Molina, Verónica

PY - 2015/12/5

Y1 - 2015/12/5

N2 - The consequences of aquaculture include alterations in nitrogen cycling in aquatic environments that may lead to ecosystem degradation. Herein salmon aquaculture release of ammonium (NH4+) to the water column and its effects on natural archaea and bacteria ammonia-oxidizers (AOA and AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) community structure were studied in the Comau fjord using molecular approaches, such as: cloning (AOA and AOB richness), qPCR for C. Nitrosopumilus maritimus (AOA) and Nitrospina sp. (NOB) abundance (DNA) and RT-qPCR only for Nitrospina sp activity (RNA). Sampling was carried out in brackish (0.7-25 salinity, <5 m depth) and marine (>30 salinity, 25 m depth) waters during contrasting salmon production periods: rest (winter 2012), growth and harvest (summer and winter 2013). During the rest period, the highest NH4+ concentration was observed at Vodudahue River, whereas during productive periods NH4+ accumulated in the brackish layer inside salmon cages and in the vicinty (up to 700 m distance from the cages). The nitrifier community from the fjord reference station (Stn-C) was characterized by C. N. maritimus (AOA) and Nitrosomonas sp. (AOB) sequences affiliated with cosmopolitan ecotypes (e.g., marine, freshwater, hydrothermal), maxima abundances of C. N. maritimus (AOA) and Nitrospina sp. and extreme ranges of Nitrospina sp. activity occurred in the brackish layer. During productive periods, abundances of C. N. maritimus were co-varied with NH4+ concentrations inside salmon cages (summer) and the adjacent areas (winter). Productive periods were characterized by lower abundances but more homogeneity between brackish and marine areas than for the Stn-C nitrifiers. The physiological state of Nitrospina sp. estimated from cDNA:DNA ratios indicated higher growth during winter 2013 associated with NH4+ enrichment derived from production and river input. Our results suggest that in Comau Fjord, NH4+ enrichment events occur during salmon production and also naturally by river inputs, supporting an abundant and active nitrifying community potentially processing only part of the extra NH4+ that occurs, predominantly outside the salmon cages. Our work highlights the abundance and activities of nitrifying communities and identifies these communities as being sensitive to increased loads of NH4+.

AB - The consequences of aquaculture include alterations in nitrogen cycling in aquatic environments that may lead to ecosystem degradation. Herein salmon aquaculture release of ammonium (NH4+) to the water column and its effects on natural archaea and bacteria ammonia-oxidizers (AOA and AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) community structure were studied in the Comau fjord using molecular approaches, such as: cloning (AOA and AOB richness), qPCR for C. Nitrosopumilus maritimus (AOA) and Nitrospina sp. (NOB) abundance (DNA) and RT-qPCR only for Nitrospina sp activity (RNA). Sampling was carried out in brackish (0.7-25 salinity, <5 m depth) and marine (>30 salinity, 25 m depth) waters during contrasting salmon production periods: rest (winter 2012), growth and harvest (summer and winter 2013). During the rest period, the highest NH4+ concentration was observed at Vodudahue River, whereas during productive periods NH4+ accumulated in the brackish layer inside salmon cages and in the vicinty (up to 700 m distance from the cages). The nitrifier community from the fjord reference station (Stn-C) was characterized by C. N. maritimus (AOA) and Nitrosomonas sp. (AOB) sequences affiliated with cosmopolitan ecotypes (e.g., marine, freshwater, hydrothermal), maxima abundances of C. N. maritimus (AOA) and Nitrospina sp. and extreme ranges of Nitrospina sp. activity occurred in the brackish layer. During productive periods, abundances of C. N. maritimus were co-varied with NH4+ concentrations inside salmon cages (summer) and the adjacent areas (winter). Productive periods were characterized by lower abundances but more homogeneity between brackish and marine areas than for the Stn-C nitrifiers. The physiological state of Nitrospina sp. estimated from cDNA:DNA ratios indicated higher growth during winter 2013 associated with NH4+ enrichment derived from production and river input. Our results suggest that in Comau Fjord, NH4+ enrichment events occur during salmon production and also naturally by river inputs, supporting an abundant and active nitrifying community potentially processing only part of the extra NH4+ that occurs, predominantly outside the salmon cages. Our work highlights the abundance and activities of nitrifying communities and identifies these communities as being sensitive to increased loads of NH4+.

KW - Ammonium (NH) enrichment

KW - Nitrifying communities

KW - Nitrospina sp.

KW - Patagonian fjords

KW - Salmon farming

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84949320807&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.ecss.2015.03.021

DO - 10.1016/j.ecss.2015.03.021

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84949320807

VL - 166

SP - 131

EP - 142

JO - Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science

JF - Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science

SN - 0272-7714

ER -