The pharmacodynamics and efficacy of Implanon®: An overview of the data

H. B. Croxatto, L. Mäkäräinen

Resultado de la investigación: Article

173 Citas (Scopus)

Resumen

Implanon® is a long-acting reversible contraceptive method, consisting of a single rod that is applied subdermally. Ovulation inhibition was determined by serum progesterone (P) levels and ultrasound scanning (USS) of the ovaries. Ovarian function was further assessed by serum estradiol (E2) levels. The effects of Implanon on serum gonadotropin levels (follicle- stimulating hormone [FSH] and luteinizing hormone [LH]) and on cervical mucus were also investigated, by means of Insler scores and sperm penetration tests. The effect on the endometrium was assessed by endometrial biopsies and USS. The Pearl index was calculated over 13 studies performed according to Good Clinical Practice (GCP), including 1716 women using Implanon. Return of ovulation after implant removal was determined by P levels and USS of the ovaries. The contraceptive efficacy of Implanon was high, with zero pregnancies during 53,530 cycles (4103 woman-years), resulting in a Pearl index of 0.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.00-0.09). This was achieved by inhibition of ovulation, which was reflected by suppressed P levels, as the primary mode of action. Ovulation was inhibited, but otherwise ovarian activity was still present (follicle growth, E2 synthesis). The FSH serum concentrations were only slightly lower than preinsertion levels and LH surges were prevented. The viscosity of the cervical mucus was increased. The endometrium was thin but not atrophic; it showed primarily inactive or weak proliferation. Return of ovulation after removal of Implanon was rapid.

Idioma originalEnglish
Páginas (desde-hasta)91S-97S
PublicaciónContraception
Volumen58
N.º6 SUPPL.
DOI
EstadoPublished - 1 ene 1998

Huella dactilar

Ovulation
Ovulation Inhibition
Cervix Mucus
Follicle Stimulating Hormone
Luteinizing Hormone
Endometrium
Serum
Ovary
Sperm-Ovum Interactions
Contraceptive Agents
Gonadotropins
Contraception
Viscosity
Progesterone
Estradiol
etonogestrel
Confidence Intervals
Biopsy
Pregnancy
Growth

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology

Citar esto

Croxatto, H. B. ; Mäkäräinen, L. / The pharmacodynamics and efficacy of Implanon® : An overview of the data. En: Contraception. 1998 ; Vol. 58, N.º 6 SUPPL. pp. 91S-97S.
@article{9453bb1f23944db9866cf664aed212ff,
title = "The pharmacodynamics and efficacy of Implanon{\circledR}: An overview of the data",
abstract = "Implanon{\circledR} is a long-acting reversible contraceptive method, consisting of a single rod that is applied subdermally. Ovulation inhibition was determined by serum progesterone (P) levels and ultrasound scanning (USS) of the ovaries. Ovarian function was further assessed by serum estradiol (E2) levels. The effects of Implanon on serum gonadotropin levels (follicle- stimulating hormone [FSH] and luteinizing hormone [LH]) and on cervical mucus were also investigated, by means of Insler scores and sperm penetration tests. The effect on the endometrium was assessed by endometrial biopsies and USS. The Pearl index was calculated over 13 studies performed according to Good Clinical Practice (GCP), including 1716 women using Implanon. Return of ovulation after implant removal was determined by P levels and USS of the ovaries. The contraceptive efficacy of Implanon was high, with zero pregnancies during 53,530 cycles (4103 woman-years), resulting in a Pearl index of 0.0 (95{\%} confidence interval, 0.00-0.09). This was achieved by inhibition of ovulation, which was reflected by suppressed P levels, as the primary mode of action. Ovulation was inhibited, but otherwise ovarian activity was still present (follicle growth, E2 synthesis). The FSH serum concentrations were only slightly lower than preinsertion levels and LH surges were prevented. The viscosity of the cervical mucus was increased. The endometrium was thin but not atrophic; it showed primarily inactive or weak proliferation. Return of ovulation after removal of Implanon was rapid.",
keywords = "Contraception, Contraceptive efficacy, Etonogestrel, Implanon{\circledR}, Implant, Pharmacodynamics, Progestin- only",
author = "Croxatto, {H. B.} and L. M{\"a}k{\"a}r{\"a}inen",
year = "1998",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/S0010-7824(98)00118-8",
language = "English",
volume = "58",
pages = "91S--97S",
journal = "Contraception",
issn = "0010-7824",
publisher = "Elsevier USA",
number = "6 SUPPL.",

}

The pharmacodynamics and efficacy of Implanon® : An overview of the data. / Croxatto, H. B.; Mäkäräinen, L.

En: Contraception, Vol. 58, N.º 6 SUPPL., 01.01.1998, p. 91S-97S.

Resultado de la investigación: Article

TY - JOUR

T1 - The pharmacodynamics and efficacy of Implanon®

T2 - An overview of the data

AU - Croxatto, H. B.

AU - Mäkäräinen, L.

PY - 1998/1/1

Y1 - 1998/1/1

N2 - Implanon® is a long-acting reversible contraceptive method, consisting of a single rod that is applied subdermally. Ovulation inhibition was determined by serum progesterone (P) levels and ultrasound scanning (USS) of the ovaries. Ovarian function was further assessed by serum estradiol (E2) levels. The effects of Implanon on serum gonadotropin levels (follicle- stimulating hormone [FSH] and luteinizing hormone [LH]) and on cervical mucus were also investigated, by means of Insler scores and sperm penetration tests. The effect on the endometrium was assessed by endometrial biopsies and USS. The Pearl index was calculated over 13 studies performed according to Good Clinical Practice (GCP), including 1716 women using Implanon. Return of ovulation after implant removal was determined by P levels and USS of the ovaries. The contraceptive efficacy of Implanon was high, with zero pregnancies during 53,530 cycles (4103 woman-years), resulting in a Pearl index of 0.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.00-0.09). This was achieved by inhibition of ovulation, which was reflected by suppressed P levels, as the primary mode of action. Ovulation was inhibited, but otherwise ovarian activity was still present (follicle growth, E2 synthesis). The FSH serum concentrations were only slightly lower than preinsertion levels and LH surges were prevented. The viscosity of the cervical mucus was increased. The endometrium was thin but not atrophic; it showed primarily inactive or weak proliferation. Return of ovulation after removal of Implanon was rapid.

AB - Implanon® is a long-acting reversible contraceptive method, consisting of a single rod that is applied subdermally. Ovulation inhibition was determined by serum progesterone (P) levels and ultrasound scanning (USS) of the ovaries. Ovarian function was further assessed by serum estradiol (E2) levels. The effects of Implanon on serum gonadotropin levels (follicle- stimulating hormone [FSH] and luteinizing hormone [LH]) and on cervical mucus were also investigated, by means of Insler scores and sperm penetration tests. The effect on the endometrium was assessed by endometrial biopsies and USS. The Pearl index was calculated over 13 studies performed according to Good Clinical Practice (GCP), including 1716 women using Implanon. Return of ovulation after implant removal was determined by P levels and USS of the ovaries. The contraceptive efficacy of Implanon was high, with zero pregnancies during 53,530 cycles (4103 woman-years), resulting in a Pearl index of 0.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.00-0.09). This was achieved by inhibition of ovulation, which was reflected by suppressed P levels, as the primary mode of action. Ovulation was inhibited, but otherwise ovarian activity was still present (follicle growth, E2 synthesis). The FSH serum concentrations were only slightly lower than preinsertion levels and LH surges were prevented. The viscosity of the cervical mucus was increased. The endometrium was thin but not atrophic; it showed primarily inactive or weak proliferation. Return of ovulation after removal of Implanon was rapid.

KW - Contraception

KW - Contraceptive efficacy

KW - Etonogestrel

KW - Implanon®

KW - Implant

KW - Pharmacodynamics

KW - Progestin- only

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0344609242&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/S0010-7824(98)00118-8

DO - 10.1016/S0010-7824(98)00118-8

M3 - Article

C2 - 10095979

AN - SCOPUS:0344609242

VL - 58

SP - 91S-97S

JO - Contraception

JF - Contraception

SN - 0010-7824

IS - 6 SUPPL.

ER -