The Gaia -ESO Survey: Exploring the complex nature and origins of the Galactic bulge populations

A. Rojas-Arriagada, A. Recio-Blanco, P. De Laverny, Mikolaitis, F. Matteucci, E. Spitoni, M. Schultheis, M. Hayden, V. Hill, M. Zoccali, D. Minniti, O. A. Gonzalez, G. Gilmore, S. Randich, S. Feltzing, E. J. Alfaro, C. Babusiaux, T. Bensby, A. Bragaglia, E. FlaccomioS. E. Koposov, E. Pancino, A. Bayo, G. Carraro, A. R. Casey, M. T. Costado, F. Damiani, P. Donati, E. Franciosini, A. Hourihane, P. Jofré, C. Lardo, J. Lewis, K. Lind, L. Magrini, L. Morbidelli, G. G. Sacco, C. C. Worley, S. Zaggia

Resultado de la investigación: Article

39 Citas (Scopus)

Resumen

Context. As observational evidence steadily accumulates, the nature of the Galactic bulge has proven to be rather complex: the structural, kinematic, and chemical analyses often lead to contradictory conclusions. The nature of the metal-rich bulge - and especially of the metal-poor bulge - and their relation with other Galactic components, still need to be firmly defined on the basis of statistically significant high-quality data samples. Aims. We used the fourth internal data release of the Gaia-ESO survey to characterize the bulge metallicity distribution function (MDF), magnesium abundance, spatial distribution, and correlation of these properties with kinematics. Moreover, the homogeneous sampling of the different Galactic populations provided by the Gaia-ESO survey allowed us to perform a comparison between the bulge, thin disk, and thick disk sequences in the [Mg/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] plane in order to constrain the extent of their eventual chemical similarities. Methods. We obtained spectroscopic data for ∼2500 red clump stars in 11 bulge fields, sampling the area -10° ≥ l ≥ +8° and -10° ≥ b ≥ -4° from the fourth internal data release of the Gaia-ESO survey. A sample of ∼6300 disk stars was also selected for comparison. Spectrophotometric distances computed via isochrone fitting allowed us to define a sample of stars likely located in the bulge region. Results. From a Gaussian mixture models (GMM) analysis, the bulge MDF is confirmed to be bimodal across the whole sampled area. The relative ratio between the two modes of the MDF changes as a function of b, with metal-poor stars dominating at high latitudes. The metal-rich stars exhibit bar-like kinematics and display a bimodality in their magnitude distribution, a feature which is tightly associated with the X-shape bulge. They overlap with the metal-rich end of the thin disk sequence in the [Mg/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] plane. On the other hand, metal-poor bulge stars have a more isotropic hot kinematics and do not participate in the X-shape bulge. Their Mg enhancement level and general shape in the [Mg/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] plane is comparable to that of the thick disk sequence. The position at which [Mg/Fe] starts to decrease with [Fe/H], called the "knee", is observed in the metal-poor bulge at [Fe/H]knee = -0:37 ± 0:09, being 0.06 dex higher than that of the thick disk. Although this difference is inside the error bars, it suggest a higher star formation rate (SFR) for the bulge than for the thick disk. We estimate an upper limit for this difference of Δ[Fe/H]knee = 0:24 dex. Finally, we present a chemical evolution model that suitably fits the whole bulge sequence by assuming a fast (<1 Gyr) intense burst of stellar formation that takes place at early epochs. Conclusions.We associate metal-rich stars with the bar boxy/peanut bulge formed as the product of secular evolution of the early thin disk. On the other hand, the metal-poor subpopulation might be the product of an early prompt dissipative collapse dominated by massive stars. Nevertheless, our results do not allow us to firmly rule out the possibility that these stars come from the secular evolution of the early thick disk. This is the first time that an analysis of the bulge MDF and α-abundances has been performed in a large area on the basis of a homogeneous, fully spectroscopic analysis of high-resolution, high S/N data.

Idioma originalEnglish
Número de artículoA140
PublicaciónAstronomy and Astrophysics
Volumen601
DOI
EstadoPublished - 1 may 2017

Huella dactilar

galactic bulge
European Southern Observatory
stars
metal
metals
metallicity
kinematics
distribution functions
sampling
chemical evolution
spectroscopic analysis
clumps
products
star formation rate
subpopulation
massive stars
data quality
polar regions
magnesium
bursts

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Citar esto

Rojas-Arriagada, A., Recio-Blanco, A., De Laverny, P., Mikolaitis, Matteucci, F., Spitoni, E., ... Zaggia, S. (2017). The Gaia -ESO Survey: Exploring the complex nature and origins of the Galactic bulge populations. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 601, [A140]. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201629160
Rojas-Arriagada, A. ; Recio-Blanco, A. ; De Laverny, P. ; Mikolaitis ; Matteucci, F. ; Spitoni, E. ; Schultheis, M. ; Hayden, M. ; Hill, V. ; Zoccali, M. ; Minniti, D. ; Gonzalez, O. A. ; Gilmore, G. ; Randich, S. ; Feltzing, S. ; Alfaro, E. J. ; Babusiaux, C. ; Bensby, T. ; Bragaglia, A. ; Flaccomio, E. ; Koposov, S. E. ; Pancino, E. ; Bayo, A. ; Carraro, G. ; Casey, A. R. ; Costado, M. T. ; Damiani, F. ; Donati, P. ; Franciosini, E. ; Hourihane, A. ; Jofré, P. ; Lardo, C. ; Lewis, J. ; Lind, K. ; Magrini, L. ; Morbidelli, L. ; Sacco, G. G. ; Worley, C. C. ; Zaggia, S. / The Gaia -ESO Survey : Exploring the complex nature and origins of the Galactic bulge populations. En: Astronomy and Astrophysics. 2017 ; Vol. 601.
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title = "The Gaia -ESO Survey: Exploring the complex nature and origins of the Galactic bulge populations",
abstract = "Context. As observational evidence steadily accumulates, the nature of the Galactic bulge has proven to be rather complex: the structural, kinematic, and chemical analyses often lead to contradictory conclusions. The nature of the metal-rich bulge - and especially of the metal-poor bulge - and their relation with other Galactic components, still need to be firmly defined on the basis of statistically significant high-quality data samples. Aims. We used the fourth internal data release of the Gaia-ESO survey to characterize the bulge metallicity distribution function (MDF), magnesium abundance, spatial distribution, and correlation of these properties with kinematics. Moreover, the homogeneous sampling of the different Galactic populations provided by the Gaia-ESO survey allowed us to perform a comparison between the bulge, thin disk, and thick disk sequences in the [Mg/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] plane in order to constrain the extent of their eventual chemical similarities. Methods. We obtained spectroscopic data for ∼2500 red clump stars in 11 bulge fields, sampling the area -10° ≥ l ≥ +8° and -10° ≥ b ≥ -4° from the fourth internal data release of the Gaia-ESO survey. A sample of ∼6300 disk stars was also selected for comparison. Spectrophotometric distances computed via isochrone fitting allowed us to define a sample of stars likely located in the bulge region. Results. From a Gaussian mixture models (GMM) analysis, the bulge MDF is confirmed to be bimodal across the whole sampled area. The relative ratio between the two modes of the MDF changes as a function of b, with metal-poor stars dominating at high latitudes. The metal-rich stars exhibit bar-like kinematics and display a bimodality in their magnitude distribution, a feature which is tightly associated with the X-shape bulge. They overlap with the metal-rich end of the thin disk sequence in the [Mg/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] plane. On the other hand, metal-poor bulge stars have a more isotropic hot kinematics and do not participate in the X-shape bulge. Their Mg enhancement level and general shape in the [Mg/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] plane is comparable to that of the thick disk sequence. The position at which [Mg/Fe] starts to decrease with [Fe/H], called the {"}knee{"}, is observed in the metal-poor bulge at [Fe/H]knee = -0:37 ± 0:09, being 0.06 dex higher than that of the thick disk. Although this difference is inside the error bars, it suggest a higher star formation rate (SFR) for the bulge than for the thick disk. We estimate an upper limit for this difference of Δ[Fe/H]knee = 0:24 dex. Finally, we present a chemical evolution model that suitably fits the whole bulge sequence by assuming a fast (<1 Gyr) intense burst of stellar formation that takes place at early epochs. Conclusions.We associate metal-rich stars with the bar boxy/peanut bulge formed as the product of secular evolution of the early thin disk. On the other hand, the metal-poor subpopulation might be the product of an early prompt dissipative collapse dominated by massive stars. Nevertheless, our results do not allow us to firmly rule out the possibility that these stars come from the secular evolution of the early thick disk. This is the first time that an analysis of the bulge MDF and α-abundances has been performed in a large area on the basis of a homogeneous, fully spectroscopic analysis of high-resolution, high S/N data.",
keywords = "Galaxy: abundances, Galaxy: bulge, Galaxy: formation, Galaxy: stellar content, Stars: abundances",
author = "A. Rojas-Arriagada and A. Recio-Blanco and {De Laverny}, P. and Mikolaitis and F. Matteucci and E. Spitoni and M. Schultheis and M. Hayden and V. Hill and M. Zoccali and D. Minniti and Gonzalez, {O. A.} and G. Gilmore and S. Randich and S. Feltzing and Alfaro, {E. J.} and C. Babusiaux and T. Bensby and A. Bragaglia and E. Flaccomio and Koposov, {S. E.} and E. Pancino and A. Bayo and G. Carraro and Casey, {A. R.} and Costado, {M. T.} and F. Damiani and P. Donati and E. Franciosini and A. Hourihane and P. Jofr{\'e} and C. Lardo and J. Lewis and K. Lind and L. Magrini and L. Morbidelli and Sacco, {G. G.} and Worley, {C. C.} and S. Zaggia",
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Rojas-Arriagada, A, Recio-Blanco, A, De Laverny, P, Mikolaitis, Matteucci, F, Spitoni, E, Schultheis, M, Hayden, M, Hill, V, Zoccali, M, Minniti, D, Gonzalez, OA, Gilmore, G, Randich, S, Feltzing, S, Alfaro, EJ, Babusiaux, C, Bensby, T, Bragaglia, A, Flaccomio, E, Koposov, SE, Pancino, E, Bayo, A, Carraro, G, Casey, AR, Costado, MT, Damiani, F, Donati, P, Franciosini, E, Hourihane, A, Jofré, P, Lardo, C, Lewis, J, Lind, K, Magrini, L, Morbidelli, L, Sacco, GG, Worley, CC & Zaggia, S 2017, 'The Gaia -ESO Survey: Exploring the complex nature and origins of the Galactic bulge populations', Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 601, A140. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201629160

The Gaia -ESO Survey : Exploring the complex nature and origins of the Galactic bulge populations. / Rojas-Arriagada, A.; Recio-Blanco, A.; De Laverny, P.; Mikolaitis; Matteucci, F.; Spitoni, E.; Schultheis, M.; Hayden, M.; Hill, V.; Zoccali, M.; Minniti, D.; Gonzalez, O. A.; Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Feltzing, S.; Alfaro, E. J.; Babusiaux, C.; Bensby, T.; Bragaglia, A.; Flaccomio, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Pancino, E.; Bayo, A.; Carraro, G.; Casey, A. R.; Costado, M. T.; Damiani, F.; Donati, P.; Franciosini, E.; Hourihane, A.; Jofré, P.; Lardo, C.; Lewis, J.; Lind, K.; Magrini, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Worley, C. C.; Zaggia, S.

En: Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol. 601, A140, 01.05.2017.

Resultado de la investigación: Article

TY - JOUR

T1 - The Gaia -ESO Survey

T2 - Exploring the complex nature and origins of the Galactic bulge populations

AU - Rojas-Arriagada, A.

AU - Recio-Blanco, A.

AU - De Laverny, P.

AU - Mikolaitis,

AU - Matteucci, F.

AU - Spitoni, E.

AU - Schultheis, M.

AU - Hayden, M.

AU - Hill, V.

AU - Zoccali, M.

AU - Minniti, D.

AU - Gonzalez, O. A.

AU - Gilmore, G.

AU - Randich, S.

AU - Feltzing, S.

AU - Alfaro, E. J.

AU - Babusiaux, C.

AU - Bensby, T.

AU - Bragaglia, A.

AU - Flaccomio, E.

AU - Koposov, S. E.

AU - Pancino, E.

AU - Bayo, A.

AU - Carraro, G.

AU - Casey, A. R.

AU - Costado, M. T.

AU - Damiani, F.

AU - Donati, P.

AU - Franciosini, E.

AU - Hourihane, A.

AU - Jofré, P.

AU - Lardo, C.

AU - Lewis, J.

AU - Lind, K.

AU - Magrini, L.

AU - Morbidelli, L.

AU - Sacco, G. G.

AU - Worley, C. C.

AU - Zaggia, S.

PY - 2017/5/1

Y1 - 2017/5/1

N2 - Context. As observational evidence steadily accumulates, the nature of the Galactic bulge has proven to be rather complex: the structural, kinematic, and chemical analyses often lead to contradictory conclusions. The nature of the metal-rich bulge - and especially of the metal-poor bulge - and their relation with other Galactic components, still need to be firmly defined on the basis of statistically significant high-quality data samples. Aims. We used the fourth internal data release of the Gaia-ESO survey to characterize the bulge metallicity distribution function (MDF), magnesium abundance, spatial distribution, and correlation of these properties with kinematics. Moreover, the homogeneous sampling of the different Galactic populations provided by the Gaia-ESO survey allowed us to perform a comparison between the bulge, thin disk, and thick disk sequences in the [Mg/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] plane in order to constrain the extent of their eventual chemical similarities. Methods. We obtained spectroscopic data for ∼2500 red clump stars in 11 bulge fields, sampling the area -10° ≥ l ≥ +8° and -10° ≥ b ≥ -4° from the fourth internal data release of the Gaia-ESO survey. A sample of ∼6300 disk stars was also selected for comparison. Spectrophotometric distances computed via isochrone fitting allowed us to define a sample of stars likely located in the bulge region. Results. From a Gaussian mixture models (GMM) analysis, the bulge MDF is confirmed to be bimodal across the whole sampled area. The relative ratio between the two modes of the MDF changes as a function of b, with metal-poor stars dominating at high latitudes. The metal-rich stars exhibit bar-like kinematics and display a bimodality in their magnitude distribution, a feature which is tightly associated with the X-shape bulge. They overlap with the metal-rich end of the thin disk sequence in the [Mg/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] plane. On the other hand, metal-poor bulge stars have a more isotropic hot kinematics and do not participate in the X-shape bulge. Their Mg enhancement level and general shape in the [Mg/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] plane is comparable to that of the thick disk sequence. The position at which [Mg/Fe] starts to decrease with [Fe/H], called the "knee", is observed in the metal-poor bulge at [Fe/H]knee = -0:37 ± 0:09, being 0.06 dex higher than that of the thick disk. Although this difference is inside the error bars, it suggest a higher star formation rate (SFR) for the bulge than for the thick disk. We estimate an upper limit for this difference of Δ[Fe/H]knee = 0:24 dex. Finally, we present a chemical evolution model that suitably fits the whole bulge sequence by assuming a fast (<1 Gyr) intense burst of stellar formation that takes place at early epochs. Conclusions.We associate metal-rich stars with the bar boxy/peanut bulge formed as the product of secular evolution of the early thin disk. On the other hand, the metal-poor subpopulation might be the product of an early prompt dissipative collapse dominated by massive stars. Nevertheless, our results do not allow us to firmly rule out the possibility that these stars come from the secular evolution of the early thick disk. This is the first time that an analysis of the bulge MDF and α-abundances has been performed in a large area on the basis of a homogeneous, fully spectroscopic analysis of high-resolution, high S/N data.

AB - Context. As observational evidence steadily accumulates, the nature of the Galactic bulge has proven to be rather complex: the structural, kinematic, and chemical analyses often lead to contradictory conclusions. The nature of the metal-rich bulge - and especially of the metal-poor bulge - and their relation with other Galactic components, still need to be firmly defined on the basis of statistically significant high-quality data samples. Aims. We used the fourth internal data release of the Gaia-ESO survey to characterize the bulge metallicity distribution function (MDF), magnesium abundance, spatial distribution, and correlation of these properties with kinematics. Moreover, the homogeneous sampling of the different Galactic populations provided by the Gaia-ESO survey allowed us to perform a comparison between the bulge, thin disk, and thick disk sequences in the [Mg/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] plane in order to constrain the extent of their eventual chemical similarities. Methods. We obtained spectroscopic data for ∼2500 red clump stars in 11 bulge fields, sampling the area -10° ≥ l ≥ +8° and -10° ≥ b ≥ -4° from the fourth internal data release of the Gaia-ESO survey. A sample of ∼6300 disk stars was also selected for comparison. Spectrophotometric distances computed via isochrone fitting allowed us to define a sample of stars likely located in the bulge region. Results. From a Gaussian mixture models (GMM) analysis, the bulge MDF is confirmed to be bimodal across the whole sampled area. The relative ratio between the two modes of the MDF changes as a function of b, with metal-poor stars dominating at high latitudes. The metal-rich stars exhibit bar-like kinematics and display a bimodality in their magnitude distribution, a feature which is tightly associated with the X-shape bulge. They overlap with the metal-rich end of the thin disk sequence in the [Mg/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] plane. On the other hand, metal-poor bulge stars have a more isotropic hot kinematics and do not participate in the X-shape bulge. Their Mg enhancement level and general shape in the [Mg/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] plane is comparable to that of the thick disk sequence. The position at which [Mg/Fe] starts to decrease with [Fe/H], called the "knee", is observed in the metal-poor bulge at [Fe/H]knee = -0:37 ± 0:09, being 0.06 dex higher than that of the thick disk. Although this difference is inside the error bars, it suggest a higher star formation rate (SFR) for the bulge than for the thick disk. We estimate an upper limit for this difference of Δ[Fe/H]knee = 0:24 dex. Finally, we present a chemical evolution model that suitably fits the whole bulge sequence by assuming a fast (<1 Gyr) intense burst of stellar formation that takes place at early epochs. Conclusions.We associate metal-rich stars with the bar boxy/peanut bulge formed as the product of secular evolution of the early thin disk. On the other hand, the metal-poor subpopulation might be the product of an early prompt dissipative collapse dominated by massive stars. Nevertheless, our results do not allow us to firmly rule out the possibility that these stars come from the secular evolution of the early thick disk. This is the first time that an analysis of the bulge MDF and α-abundances has been performed in a large area on the basis of a homogeneous, fully spectroscopic analysis of high-resolution, high S/N data.

KW - Galaxy: abundances

KW - Galaxy: bulge

KW - Galaxy: formation

KW - Galaxy: stellar content

KW - Stars: abundances

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DO - 10.1051/0004-6361/201629160

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Rojas-Arriagada A, Recio-Blanco A, De Laverny P, Mikolaitis, Matteucci F, Spitoni E y otros. The Gaia -ESO Survey: Exploring the complex nature and origins of the Galactic bulge populations. Astronomy and Astrophysics. 2017 may 1;601. A140. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201629160