Modelling forecast uncertainty is a difficult task in any forecasting problem. In weather forecasting a possible solution is the use of forecast ensembles, which are obtained from multiple runs of numerical weather prediction models with various initial conditions and model parametrizations to provide information about the expected uncertainty. Currently all major meteorological centres issue forecasts using their operational ensemble prediction systems. However, it is a general problem that the spread of the ensemble is too small compared to observations at specific sites resulting in under-dispersive forecasts, leading to a lack of calibration. In order to correct this problem, various statistical calibration techniques have been developed in the last two decades. In the present work different post-processing techniques were tested for calibrating nine member ensemble forecasts of temperature for Santiago de Chile, obtained by the Weather Research and Forecasting model using different planetary boundary layer and land surface model parametrizations. In particular, the ensemble model output statistics and Bayesian model averaging techniques were implemented and, since the observations are characterized by large altitude differences, the estimation of model parameters was adapted to the actual conditions at hand. Compared to the raw ensemble, all tested post-processing approaches significantly improve the calibration of probabilistic forecasts and the accuracy of point forecasts. The ensemble model output statistics method using parameter estimation based on expert clustering of stations (according to their altitudes) shows the best forecast skill.
Áreas temáticas de ASJC Scopus
- Ciencias atmosféricas