Hemostasis preserves blood fluidity and prevents its loss after vessel injury. The maintenance of blood fluidity requires a delicate balance between pro-coagulant and fibrinolytic status. Endothelial cells (ECs) in the inner face of blood vessels maintain hemostasis through balancing anti-thrombotic and pro-fibrinolytic activities. Dyslipidemias are linked to hemostatic alterations. Thus, it is necessary a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms linking hemostasis with dyslipidemia. Statins are drugs that decrease cholesterol levels in the blood and are the gold standard for treating hyperlipidemias. Statins can be classified into natural and synthetic molecules, approved for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. The classical mechanism of action of statins is by competitive inhibition of a key enzyme in the synthesis pathway of cholesterol, the HMG-CoA reductase. Statins are frequently administrated by oral ingestion and its interaction with other drugs and food supplements is associated with altered bioavailability. In this review we deeply discuss the actions of statins beyond the control of dyslipidemias, focusing on the actions in thrombotic modulation, vascular and cardiovascular-related diseases, metabolic diseases including metabolic syndrome, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension, and chronic diseases such as cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and chronic kidney disease. Furthermore, we were prompted to delved deeper in the molecular mechanisms by means statins regulate coagulation acting on liver, platelets, and endothelium. Clinical evidence show that statins are effective regulators of dyslipidemia with a high impact in hemostasis regulation and its deleterious consequences. However, studies are required to elucidate its underlying molecular mechanism and improving their therapeutical actions.
Áreas temáticas de ASJC Scopus
- Bioquímica, genética y biología molecular (todo)