In this chapter, the authors explore jump training exercises as a mean to maximise vertical force production and related physical fitness traits. Jump training may enhance muscular force, the rate of force development, muscular power, muscle contraction velocity, cross-sectional area, muscle stiffness, among other biological and biomechanical factors associated with enhanced physical function and athletic performance. Jump training exercises are characterised by the stretch–shortening cycle of the muscle–tendon complex, usually involving a pre-activation, stretching, and a shortening phase. Athletes have used jumps as a training method at least in the last 3000 years. From a scientific perspective, the number of scientific publications increased tremendously in recent years, with a 25-fold increase between 2000 and 2017. Scientific evidence supports the role of jump training for the improvement of physical performance in male and female athletes, from pre-pubertal to adult and senior age. However, evidence also supports the role of modified jump training exercises for several health-related outcomes (e.g., fat mass; muscle hypertrophy; bone density). In this chapter, the reader will find a summary of current scientific evidence regarding the biological foundations for jump training exercises, the scientifically proven methodological principles and practical guidelines regarding the programming of jump training exercises.