Endosymbiosis is a type of symbiosis where one species of microscopic scale inhabits the cell of another species of a larger scale, such that the exchange of metabolic byproducts produces mutual benefit. These benefits can occur at different biological levels. For example, endosymbiosis promotes efficiency of the cell metabolism, cell replication, and the generation of a macroscopic layer that protects the organism from its predators. Therefore, modeling endosymbiosis requires a complex-systems and multilevel approach. We propose a model of endosymbiosis based on reaction networks, where species of the reaction network represent either ecological species, resources, or conditions for the ecological interactions to happen, and the endosymbiotic interaction mechanisms are represented by different sequences of reactions (processes) in the reaction network. As an example, we develop a toy model of the coral endosymbiotic interaction. The model considers two reaction networks, representing biochemical traffic and cellular proliferation levels, respectively. In addition, the model incorporates top-down and bottom-up regulation mechanisms that stabilizes the endosymbiotic interaction.
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