One of the main clinical challenges of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) is the high rate of relapse episodes. The main determinants involved in relapse of CDI include the presence of antibiotic-resistant C. difficile spores in the colonic environment and a permanent state of dysbiosis of the microbiota caused by antibiotic therapy. A possible scenario is that phenotypes related to the persistence of C. difficile spores might contribute to relapsing infections. In this study, 8 C. difficile isolates recovered from 4 cases with relapsing infection, and 9 isolates recovered from single infection cases were analyzed for PCR ribotyping and the presence of tcdA, tcdB and cdtAB genes. Factors associated to spore persistence, sporulation, spore adherence and biofilm formation and sporulation during biofilm formation were characterized. We also evaluated motility and cytotoxicity. However, we observed no significant difference in the analyzed phenotypes among the different clinical outcomes, most likely due to the high variability observed among strains within clinical backgrounds in each phenotype and the small sample size. It is noteworthy that C. difficile spores adhered to similar extents to undifferentiated and differentiated Caco-2 cells. By contrast, spores of all clinical isolates tested had increased germination efficiency in presence of taurocholate, while decreased sporulation rate during biofilm development in the presence of glucose. In conclusion, these results show that, at least in this cohort of patients, the described phenotypes are not detrimental in the clinical outcome of the disease.
Áreas temáticas de ASJC Scopus
- Enfermedades infecciosas