Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of childhood hospitalization and respiratory distress and has been recognized for several decades as a major health and economic burden worldwide. This virus has developed several virulence mechanisms to impair the establishment of a protective immune response to re-infection. Accordingly, inefficient immunological memory is usually generated after exposure to this pathogen. Furthermore, it has been shown that RSV can actively promote the induction of an inadequate cellular immune response at the site of infection that causes exacerbated inflammation in the respiratory tract. Such an inflammatory response is both inefficient for clearing the virus and can be responsible for detrimental symptoms, such as asthma and wheezing. Recent data suggest that RSV possesses molecular mechanisms to induce the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines that modulate the immune response and impair viral clearance by reducing IFN-γ production. Here, we discuss recent research leading to the identification of RSV virulence factors that are responsible of promoting a pro-inflammatory environment at the airways and their implications on pathogenicity.
Áreas temáticas de ASJC Scopus
- Inmulogía y alergología