Clostridium difficile is an emerging anaerobic, spore forming pathogen, recognized as the etiological agent of ~ 30% of antibiotic associated diarrheas. Clinical symptoms can fluctuate from mild to moderate diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis and toxic megacolon. The incidence of C. diffi cile associated infections (CDAI) is ~ 1% of total hospitalized patients. CDAI has a mortality rate of ~1 to 5%, and a relapse rate of ~ 20%. The appearance of severe outbreaks of CDAI could be attributed to changes in the production of the two major virulence factors, the enterotoxins TcdA and TcdB, which produce massive epithelial damage. C. diffi cile spores play an essential role in transmission, initiation and persistence of CDAI. Recent advances in detection methods, development of novel therapies and prevention methods could allow a reduction on the frequency of CDAI. The objective of this review is to provide an updated view on the mechanisms of pathogenesis, epidemiology, risk factors, detection methods, treatment and prevention of CDAI.
- Antibiotic associated colitis
- C. difficile
- Pseudomembranous colitis
- Toxic megacolon
Áreas temáticas de ASJC Scopus
- Salud pública, medioambiental y laboral
- Enfermedades infecciosas