In aquaculture, many stressors can negatively affect growth in teleosts. It is believed that cortisol performs glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid functions because teleosts do not synthesize aldosterone. However, recent data suggest that 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) released during stress events may be relevant to modulate the compensatory response. To understand how DOC modifies the skeletal muscle molecular response, we carried out a transcriptomic analysis. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were intraperitoneally treated with physiological doses of DOC in individuals pretreated with mifepristone (glucocorticoid receptor antagonist) or eplerenone (mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist). RNA was extracted from the skeletal muscles, and cDNA libraries were constructed from vehicle, DOC, mifepristone, mifepristone plus DOC, eplerenone, and eplerenone plus DOC groups. The RNA-seq analysis revealed 131 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) induced by DOC with respect to the vehicle group, mainly associated with muscle contraction, sarcomere organization, and cell adhesion. In addition, a DOC versus mifepristone plus DOC analysis revealed 122 DETs related to muscle contraction, sarcomere organization, and skeletal muscle cell differentiation. In a DOC versus eplerenone plus DOC analysis, 133 DETs were associated with autophagosome assembly, circadian regulation of gene expression, and regulation of transcription from RNA pol II promoter. These analyses indicate that DOC has a relevant function in the stress response of skeletal muscles, whose action is differentially modulated by GR and MR and is complementary to cortisol.