Three parameters of nuclear structure contribute to transcriptional control. The linear representation of promoter elements provides competency for physiological responsiveness within the contexts of developmental as well as cell cycle- and phenotype-dependent regulation. Chromatin structure and nucleosome organization reduce distances between independent regulatory elements providing a basis for integrating components of transcriptional control. The nuclear matrix supports gene expression by imposing physical constraints on chromatin related to three-dimensional genomic organization. In addition, the nuclear matrix facilitates gene localization as well as the concentration and targeting of transcription factors. Several lines of evidence are presented that are consistent with involvement of multiple levels of nuclear architecture in cell growth and tissue-specific gene expression during differentiation. Growth factor and steroid hormone responsive modifications in chromatin structure, nucleosome organization, and the nuclear matrix that influence transcription of the cell cycle-regulated histone gene and the bone tissue-specific osteocalcin gene during progressive expression of the osteoblast phenotype are considered.
Áreas temáticas de ASJC Scopus
- Biología celular