We investigated the combined effects of Ocean Warming (OW), Acidification (OA) and predator cues (Non-Consumptive Effects; NCEs) of two predators with contrasting feeding-digestion strategies on the mussel Perumytilus purpuratus. We considered starfish-NCEs (partially external digestion) and snail-NCEs (internal digestion). Mussels were exposed for 13 weeks to cross-factored OA (~500 and ~1400 μatm, pCO2) and OW (~15 and ~20 °C) conditions, in the presence/absence of NCEs from one or both predators. Mussels exposed to both NCEs exhibited smaller length and buoyant weight growth than those under control or snail-NCEs conditions. Mussels exposed to starfish-NCEs exhibited smaller wet mass than control mussels. OW and starfish-NCEs in isolation or combined with snail-NCEs increased mussel oxygen consumption. Byssal biogenesis was affected by the three-factors interaction. Clearance rates were affected by the OW × OA interaction. We suggest that mainly starfish-NCEs, in isolation or interacting with OA or/and OW, can threat mussel traits and the associated community.
Áreas temáticas de ASJC Scopus
- Ciencias acuáticas