The gut microbiome has a significant impact on host health, especially at the metabolic level. Dietary compounds arriving at the colon have a large influence on the composition of the gut microbiome. High fiber diets have been associated to health benefits that are mediated in great part by short chain fatty acids (SCFA). Gut microbial interactions are relevant for the utilization of complex carbohydrates in the gut microbiome. In this work we characterized the utilization of two dietary polysaccharides by combinations of representative adult gut microbes, and the impact of their activities on a cellular inflammation model. Paired combinations of Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bacteroides dorei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Escherichia coli and Clostridium symbiosum were grown in inulin or xylan as carbon source. Their relative abundance, substrate consumption and major SCFAs produced were determined. Higher cell growth was observed during inulin consumption, and B. adolescentis and L. plantarum were dominant in co-cultures. The co-culture of B. dorei and C. symbiosum was dominant in xylan. In several cases the combined bacterial growth was lower in co-cultures than monocultures, with a few exceptions of synergistic growth between microorganisms. Inulin fermentation resulted in larger acetate and lactate concentrations, and several combinations grown in xylan containing C. symbiosum were characterized by high amounts of butyrate. These microbial consortia were scaled to batch bioreactor fermentations reaching high cell densities and similar profiles to co-culture experiments. Interestingly, a microbial combination producing high amounts of butyrate was able to reduce IL-8 expression in HT-29 cells co-incubated with TNFα. In summary, this work shows that microbial interactions during the utilization of dietary polysaccharides are complex and substrate dependent. Moreover, certain combinations deploy potent anti-inflammatory effects, which are independent of individual microbial growth, and could be mediated in part by higher butyrate production.
Áreas temáticas de ASJC Scopus