Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain D2 was isolated from a copper bioleaching operation in Atacama Desert, Chile. Copper is widely used as cofactor in proteins but high concentrations of copper are toxic. Cells require certain mechanisms to maintain the copper homeostasis and avoid toxic effects of high intracellular concentration. The molecular response of A. ferrooxidans strain D2 grown in the presence/absence of copper was examined using a A. ferrooxidans whole-genome DNA microarrays. Roughly 23% of 3,147 genes represented on the microarray were differentially expressed; about 9% of them were upregulated in the presence of copper. Among the upregulated genes, those encoding for the copper efflux protein (CusA) and for the copper-translocating P-type ATPase (CopA) were upregulated. The expression of genes encoding proteins related to iron transport was repressed. Similarly, genes related with assimilative metabolism of sulfur (L-cysteine biosynthesis) cysB, cysJ, cysI, CysD-2 and cysN were upregulated. Our results show that when A. ferrooxidans strain D2 was challenged with high copper concentrations, genes related to copper stress response were upregulated as well as others that have not been reported to be related to that mechanism. In addition, some genes related to other metabolic pathways were repressed, probably because of the energy cost of the stress response.