A population of eruptive variable protostars in VVV

C. Contreras Peña, P. W. Lucas, D. Minniti, R. Kurtev, W. Stimson, C. Navarro Molina, J. Borissova, M. S.N. Kumar, M. A. Thompson, T. Gledhill, R. Terzi, D. Froebrich, A. Caratti o Garatti

Resultado de la investigación: Article

22 Citas (Scopus)

Resumen

We present the discovery of 816 high-amplitude infrared variable stars (ΔKs > 1 mag) in 119 deg2 of the Galactic mid-plane covered by the VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV) survey. Almost all are new discoveries and about 50 per cent are young stellar objects (YSOs). This provides further evidence that YSOs are the commonest high-amplitude infrared variable stars in the Galactic plane. In the 2010-2014 time series of likely YSOs, we find that the amplitude of variability increases towards younger evolutionary classes (class I and flatspectrum sources) except on short time-scales (< 25 d) where this trend is reversed. Dividing the likely YSOs by light-curve morphology, we find 106 with eruptive light curves, 45 dippers, 39 faders, 24 eclipsing binaries, 65 long-term periodic variables (P > 100 d) and 162 shortterm variables. Eruptive YSOs and faders tend to have the highest amplitudes and eruptive systems have the reddest spectral energy distribution (SEDs). Follow-up spectroscopy in a companion paper verifies high accretion rates in the eruptive systems. Variable extinction is disfavoured by the two epochs of colour data. These discoveries increase the number of eruptive variable YSOs by a factor of at least 5, most being at earlier stages of evolution than the known FUor and EXor types. We find that eruptive variability is at least an order of magnitude more common in class I YSOs than class II YSOs. Typical outburst durations are 1-4 yr, between those of EXors and FUors. They occur in 3-6 per cent of class I YSOs over a 4 yr time span.

Idioma originalEnglish
Páginas (desde-hasta)3011-3038
Número de páginas28
PublicaciónMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volumen465
N.º3
DOI
EstadoPublished - 1 ene 2017

Huella dactilar

protostars
infrared stars
variable stars
spectral energy distribution
extinction
time measurement
young
color
outburst
spectroscopy
accretion
time series
timescale

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Citar esto

Contreras Peña, C., Lucas, P. W., Minniti, D., Kurtev, R., Stimson, W., Navarro Molina, C., ... Caratti o Garatti, A. (2017). A population of eruptive variable protostars in VVV. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 465(3), 3011-3038. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stw2801
Contreras Peña, C. ; Lucas, P. W. ; Minniti, D. ; Kurtev, R. ; Stimson, W. ; Navarro Molina, C. ; Borissova, J. ; Kumar, M. S.N. ; Thompson, M. A. ; Gledhill, T. ; Terzi, R. ; Froebrich, D. ; Caratti o Garatti, A. / A population of eruptive variable protostars in VVV. En: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 2017 ; Vol. 465, N.º 3. pp. 3011-3038.
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title = "A population of eruptive variable protostars in VVV",
abstract = "We present the discovery of 816 high-amplitude infrared variable stars (ΔKs > 1 mag) in 119 deg2 of the Galactic mid-plane covered by the VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV) survey. Almost all are new discoveries and about 50 per cent are young stellar objects (YSOs). This provides further evidence that YSOs are the commonest high-amplitude infrared variable stars in the Galactic plane. In the 2010-2014 time series of likely YSOs, we find that the amplitude of variability increases towards younger evolutionary classes (class I and flatspectrum sources) except on short time-scales (< 25 d) where this trend is reversed. Dividing the likely YSOs by light-curve morphology, we find 106 with eruptive light curves, 45 dippers, 39 faders, 24 eclipsing binaries, 65 long-term periodic variables (P > 100 d) and 162 shortterm variables. Eruptive YSOs and faders tend to have the highest amplitudes and eruptive systems have the reddest spectral energy distribution (SEDs). Follow-up spectroscopy in a companion paper verifies high accretion rates in the eruptive systems. Variable extinction is disfavoured by the two epochs of colour data. These discoveries increase the number of eruptive variable YSOs by a factor of at least 5, most being at earlier stages of evolution than the known FUor and EXor types. We find that eruptive variability is at least an order of magnitude more common in class I YSOs than class II YSOs. Typical outburst durations are 1-4 yr, between those of EXors and FUors. They occur in 3-6 per cent of class I YSOs over a 4 yr time span.",
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Contreras Peña, C, Lucas, PW, Minniti, D, Kurtev, R, Stimson, W, Navarro Molina, C, Borissova, J, Kumar, MSN, Thompson, MA, Gledhill, T, Terzi, R, Froebrich, D & Caratti o Garatti, A 2017, 'A population of eruptive variable protostars in VVV', Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 465, n.º 3, pp. 3011-3038. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stw2801

A population of eruptive variable protostars in VVV. / Contreras Peña, C.; Lucas, P. W.; Minniti, D.; Kurtev, R.; Stimson, W.; Navarro Molina, C.; Borissova, J.; Kumar, M. S.N.; Thompson, M. A.; Gledhill, T.; Terzi, R.; Froebrich, D.; Caratti o Garatti, A.

En: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 465, N.º 3, 01.01.2017, p. 3011-3038.

Resultado de la investigación: Article

TY - JOUR

T1 - A population of eruptive variable protostars in VVV

AU - Contreras Peña, C.

AU - Lucas, P. W.

AU - Minniti, D.

AU - Kurtev, R.

AU - Stimson, W.

AU - Navarro Molina, C.

AU - Borissova, J.

AU - Kumar, M. S.N.

AU - Thompson, M. A.

AU - Gledhill, T.

AU - Terzi, R.

AU - Froebrich, D.

AU - Caratti o Garatti, A.

PY - 2017/1/1

Y1 - 2017/1/1

N2 - We present the discovery of 816 high-amplitude infrared variable stars (ΔKs > 1 mag) in 119 deg2 of the Galactic mid-plane covered by the VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV) survey. Almost all are new discoveries and about 50 per cent are young stellar objects (YSOs). This provides further evidence that YSOs are the commonest high-amplitude infrared variable stars in the Galactic plane. In the 2010-2014 time series of likely YSOs, we find that the amplitude of variability increases towards younger evolutionary classes (class I and flatspectrum sources) except on short time-scales (< 25 d) where this trend is reversed. Dividing the likely YSOs by light-curve morphology, we find 106 with eruptive light curves, 45 dippers, 39 faders, 24 eclipsing binaries, 65 long-term periodic variables (P > 100 d) and 162 shortterm variables. Eruptive YSOs and faders tend to have the highest amplitudes and eruptive systems have the reddest spectral energy distribution (SEDs). Follow-up spectroscopy in a companion paper verifies high accretion rates in the eruptive systems. Variable extinction is disfavoured by the two epochs of colour data. These discoveries increase the number of eruptive variable YSOs by a factor of at least 5, most being at earlier stages of evolution than the known FUor and EXor types. We find that eruptive variability is at least an order of magnitude more common in class I YSOs than class II YSOs. Typical outburst durations are 1-4 yr, between those of EXors and FUors. They occur in 3-6 per cent of class I YSOs over a 4 yr time span.

AB - We present the discovery of 816 high-amplitude infrared variable stars (ΔKs > 1 mag) in 119 deg2 of the Galactic mid-plane covered by the VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV) survey. Almost all are new discoveries and about 50 per cent are young stellar objects (YSOs). This provides further evidence that YSOs are the commonest high-amplitude infrared variable stars in the Galactic plane. In the 2010-2014 time series of likely YSOs, we find that the amplitude of variability increases towards younger evolutionary classes (class I and flatspectrum sources) except on short time-scales (< 25 d) where this trend is reversed. Dividing the likely YSOs by light-curve morphology, we find 106 with eruptive light curves, 45 dippers, 39 faders, 24 eclipsing binaries, 65 long-term periodic variables (P > 100 d) and 162 shortterm variables. Eruptive YSOs and faders tend to have the highest amplitudes and eruptive systems have the reddest spectral energy distribution (SEDs). Follow-up spectroscopy in a companion paper verifies high accretion rates in the eruptive systems. Variable extinction is disfavoured by the two epochs of colour data. These discoveries increase the number of eruptive variable YSOs by a factor of at least 5, most being at earlier stages of evolution than the known FUor and EXor types. We find that eruptive variability is at least an order of magnitude more common in class I YSOs than class II YSOs. Typical outburst durations are 1-4 yr, between those of EXors and FUors. They occur in 3-6 per cent of class I YSOs over a 4 yr time span.

KW - Herbig Ae/Be

KW - Infrared: stars

KW - Stars: AGB and post-AGB

KW - Stars: low-mass

KW - Stars: pre-main-sequence

KW - Stars: protostars

KW - Stars: variables: T Tauri

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U2 - 10.1093/mnras/stw2801

DO - 10.1093/mnras/stw2801

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85014689138

VL - 465

SP - 3011

EP - 3038

JO - Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

JF - Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

SN - 0035-8711

IS - 3

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Contreras Peña C, Lucas PW, Minniti D, Kurtev R, Stimson W, Navarro Molina C y otros. A population of eruptive variable protostars in VVV. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 2017 ene 1;465(3):3011-3038. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stw2801