A meteorological overview of the MILAGRO field campaigns

J. D. Fast, B. De Foy, F. Acevedo Rosas, E. Caetano, G. Carmichael, L. Emmons, D. McKenna, M. Mena, W. Skamarock, X. Tie, R. L. Coulter, J. C. Barnard, C. Wiedinmyer, S. Madronich

Resultado de la investigación: Review article

114 Citas (Scopus)

Resumen

We describe the large-scale meteorological conditions that affected atmospheric chemistry over Mexico during March 2006 when several field campaigns were conducted in the region. In-situ and remote-sensing instrumentation was deployed to obtain measurements of wind, temperature, and humidity profiles in the boundary layer and free atmosphere at four primary sampling sites in central Mexico. Several models were run operationally during the field campaign to provide forecasts of the local, regional, and synoptic meteorology as well as the predicted location of the Mexico City pollutant plume for aircraft flight planning purposes. Field campaign measurements and large-scale analyses are used to define three regimes that characterize the overall meteorological conditions: the first regime prior to 14 March, the second regime between 14 and 23 March, and the third regime after 23 March. Mostly sunny and dry conditions with periods of cirrus and marine stratus along the coast occurred during the first regime. The beginning of the second regime was characterized by a sharp increase in humidity over the central plateau and the development of late afternoon convection associated with the passage of a weak cold surge on 14 March. Over the next several days, the atmosphere over the central plateau became drier so that deep convection gradually diminished. The third regime began with the passage of a strong cold surge that lead to humidity, afternoon convection, and precipitation over the central plateau that was higher than during the second regime. The frequency and intensity of fires, as determined by satellite measurements, also diminished significantly after the third cold surge. The synoptic-scale flow patterns that govern the transport of pollutants in the region are described and compared to previous March periods to put the transport into a climatological context. The complex terrain surrounding Mexico City produces local and regional circulations that govern short-range transport; however, the mean synoptic conditions modulate the thermally-driven circulations and on several days the near-surface flow is coupled to the ambient winds aloft.

Idioma originalEnglish
Páginas (desde-hasta)2233-2257
Número de páginas25
PublicaciónAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Volumen7
N.º9
EstadoPublished - 2007

Huella dactilar

humidity
convection
plateau
synoptic meteorology
stratus
pollutant
atmosphere
complex terrain
atmospheric chemistry
cirrus
flow pattern
instrumentation
aircraft
plume
boundary layer
flight
remote sensing
coast
sampling
cold

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atmospheric Science

Citar esto

Fast, J. D., De Foy, B., Rosas, F. A., Caetano, E., Carmichael, G., Emmons, L., ... Madronich, S. (2007). A meteorological overview of the MILAGRO field campaigns. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 7(9), 2233-2257.
Fast, J. D. ; De Foy, B. ; Rosas, F. Acevedo ; Caetano, E. ; Carmichael, G. ; Emmons, L. ; McKenna, D. ; Mena, M. ; Skamarock, W. ; Tie, X. ; Coulter, R. L. ; Barnard, J. C. ; Wiedinmyer, C. ; Madronich, S. / A meteorological overview of the MILAGRO field campaigns. En: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2007 ; Vol. 7, N.º 9. pp. 2233-2257.
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title = "A meteorological overview of the MILAGRO field campaigns",
abstract = "We describe the large-scale meteorological conditions that affected atmospheric chemistry over Mexico during March 2006 when several field campaigns were conducted in the region. In-situ and remote-sensing instrumentation was deployed to obtain measurements of wind, temperature, and humidity profiles in the boundary layer and free atmosphere at four primary sampling sites in central Mexico. Several models were run operationally during the field campaign to provide forecasts of the local, regional, and synoptic meteorology as well as the predicted location of the Mexico City pollutant plume for aircraft flight planning purposes. Field campaign measurements and large-scale analyses are used to define three regimes that characterize the overall meteorological conditions: the first regime prior to 14 March, the second regime between 14 and 23 March, and the third regime after 23 March. Mostly sunny and dry conditions with periods of cirrus and marine stratus along the coast occurred during the first regime. The beginning of the second regime was characterized by a sharp increase in humidity over the central plateau and the development of late afternoon convection associated with the passage of a weak cold surge on 14 March. Over the next several days, the atmosphere over the central plateau became drier so that deep convection gradually diminished. The third regime began with the passage of a strong cold surge that lead to humidity, afternoon convection, and precipitation over the central plateau that was higher than during the second regime. The frequency and intensity of fires, as determined by satellite measurements, also diminished significantly after the third cold surge. The synoptic-scale flow patterns that govern the transport of pollutants in the region are described and compared to previous March periods to put the transport into a climatological context. The complex terrain surrounding Mexico City produces local and regional circulations that govern short-range transport; however, the mean synoptic conditions modulate the thermally-driven circulations and on several days the near-surface flow is coupled to the ambient winds aloft.",
author = "Fast, {J. D.} and {De Foy}, B. and Rosas, {F. Acevedo} and E. Caetano and G. Carmichael and L. Emmons and D. McKenna and M. Mena and W. Skamarock and X. Tie and Coulter, {R. L.} and Barnard, {J. C.} and C. Wiedinmyer and S. Madronich",
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Fast, JD, De Foy, B, Rosas, FA, Caetano, E, Carmichael, G, Emmons, L, McKenna, D, Mena, M, Skamarock, W, Tie, X, Coulter, RL, Barnard, JC, Wiedinmyer, C & Madronich, S 2007, 'A meteorological overview of the MILAGRO field campaigns', Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 7, n.º 9, pp. 2233-2257.

A meteorological overview of the MILAGRO field campaigns. / Fast, J. D.; De Foy, B.; Rosas, F. Acevedo; Caetano, E.; Carmichael, G.; Emmons, L.; McKenna, D.; Mena, M.; Skamarock, W.; Tie, X.; Coulter, R. L.; Barnard, J. C.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Madronich, S.

En: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 7, N.º 9, 2007, p. 2233-2257.

Resultado de la investigación: Review article

TY - JOUR

T1 - A meteorological overview of the MILAGRO field campaigns

AU - Fast, J. D.

AU - De Foy, B.

AU - Rosas, F. Acevedo

AU - Caetano, E.

AU - Carmichael, G.

AU - Emmons, L.

AU - McKenna, D.

AU - Mena, M.

AU - Skamarock, W.

AU - Tie, X.

AU - Coulter, R. L.

AU - Barnard, J. C.

AU - Wiedinmyer, C.

AU - Madronich, S.

PY - 2007

Y1 - 2007

N2 - We describe the large-scale meteorological conditions that affected atmospheric chemistry over Mexico during March 2006 when several field campaigns were conducted in the region. In-situ and remote-sensing instrumentation was deployed to obtain measurements of wind, temperature, and humidity profiles in the boundary layer and free atmosphere at four primary sampling sites in central Mexico. Several models were run operationally during the field campaign to provide forecasts of the local, regional, and synoptic meteorology as well as the predicted location of the Mexico City pollutant plume for aircraft flight planning purposes. Field campaign measurements and large-scale analyses are used to define three regimes that characterize the overall meteorological conditions: the first regime prior to 14 March, the second regime between 14 and 23 March, and the third regime after 23 March. Mostly sunny and dry conditions with periods of cirrus and marine stratus along the coast occurred during the first regime. The beginning of the second regime was characterized by a sharp increase in humidity over the central plateau and the development of late afternoon convection associated with the passage of a weak cold surge on 14 March. Over the next several days, the atmosphere over the central plateau became drier so that deep convection gradually diminished. The third regime began with the passage of a strong cold surge that lead to humidity, afternoon convection, and precipitation over the central plateau that was higher than during the second regime. The frequency and intensity of fires, as determined by satellite measurements, also diminished significantly after the third cold surge. The synoptic-scale flow patterns that govern the transport of pollutants in the region are described and compared to previous March periods to put the transport into a climatological context. The complex terrain surrounding Mexico City produces local and regional circulations that govern short-range transport; however, the mean synoptic conditions modulate the thermally-driven circulations and on several days the near-surface flow is coupled to the ambient winds aloft.

AB - We describe the large-scale meteorological conditions that affected atmospheric chemistry over Mexico during March 2006 when several field campaigns were conducted in the region. In-situ and remote-sensing instrumentation was deployed to obtain measurements of wind, temperature, and humidity profiles in the boundary layer and free atmosphere at four primary sampling sites in central Mexico. Several models were run operationally during the field campaign to provide forecasts of the local, regional, and synoptic meteorology as well as the predicted location of the Mexico City pollutant plume for aircraft flight planning purposes. Field campaign measurements and large-scale analyses are used to define three regimes that characterize the overall meteorological conditions: the first regime prior to 14 March, the second regime between 14 and 23 March, and the third regime after 23 March. Mostly sunny and dry conditions with periods of cirrus and marine stratus along the coast occurred during the first regime. The beginning of the second regime was characterized by a sharp increase in humidity over the central plateau and the development of late afternoon convection associated with the passage of a weak cold surge on 14 March. Over the next several days, the atmosphere over the central plateau became drier so that deep convection gradually diminished. The third regime began with the passage of a strong cold surge that lead to humidity, afternoon convection, and precipitation over the central plateau that was higher than during the second regime. The frequency and intensity of fires, as determined by satellite measurements, also diminished significantly after the third cold surge. The synoptic-scale flow patterns that govern the transport of pollutants in the region are described and compared to previous March periods to put the transport into a climatological context. The complex terrain surrounding Mexico City produces local and regional circulations that govern short-range transport; however, the mean synoptic conditions modulate the thermally-driven circulations and on several days the near-surface flow is coupled to the ambient winds aloft.

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M3 - Review article

AN - SCOPUS:34248161111

VL - 7

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JO - Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics

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SN - 1680-7316

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Fast JD, De Foy B, Rosas FA, Caetano E, Carmichael G, Emmons L y otros. A meteorological overview of the MILAGRO field campaigns. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2007;7(9):2233-2257.