CoronaVac is an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine approved by the World Health Organization (WHO). Previous studies reported increased levels of neutralizing antibodies and specific T cells 2 and 4 weeks after two doses of CoronaVac; these levels were significantly reduced at 6 to 8 months after the two doses. Here, we report the effect of a booster dose of CoronaVac on the anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune response generated against the variants of concern (VOCs), Delta and Omicron, in adults participating in a phase III clinical trial in Chile. Volunteers immunized with two doses of CoronaVac in a 4-week interval received a booster dose of the same vaccine between 24 and 30 weeks after the second dose. Neutralization capacities and T cell activation against VOCs Delta and Omicron were assessed 4 weeks after the booster dose. We observed a significant increase in neutralizing antibodies 4 weeks after the booster dose. We also observed a rise in anti-SARS-CoV-2-specific CD41 T cells over time, and these cells reached a peak 4 weeks after the booster dose. Furthermore, neutralizing antibodies and SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells induced by the booster showed activity against VOCs Delta and Omicron. Our results show that a booster dose of CoronaVac increases adults’ humoral and cellular anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune responses. In addition, immunity induced by a booster dose of CoronaVac is active against VOCs, suggesting adequate protection. IMPORTANCE CoronaVac is an inactivated vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 that has been approved by WHO for emergency use. Phase III clinical trials are in progress in several countries, including China, Brazil, Turkey, and Chile, and have shown safety and immunogenicity after two doses of the vaccine. This report characterizes immune responses induced by two doses of CoronaVac followed by a booster dose 5 months after the second dose in healthy Chilean adults. The data reported here show that a booster dose increased the immune responses against SARS-CoV-2, enhancing levels of neutralizing antibodies against the ancestral strain and VOCs. Similarly, anti-SARS-CoV-2 CD41 T cell responses were increased following the booster dose. In contrast, levels of gamma interferon secretion and T cell activation against the VOCs Delta and Omicron were not significantly different from those for the ancestral strain. Therefore, a third dose of CoronaVac in a homologous vaccination schedule improves its immunogenicity in healthy volunteers.
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