This review provides an overview of the concepts, methods and current status of the classification and diagnosis of schizophrenia and of the guidelines in schizophrenia treatment since the respective previous issue of Advances in Psychiatry had been published in 2009. While research evidence has greatly advanced the understanding of the aetiopathogenesis of schizophrenia, the diagnostic criteria of schizophrenia remain clinical ones. Classification criteria have been revised for the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) of the American Psychiatric Association. These and the revision of the classification of schizophrenia in the upcoming 11th version of the International Classification of Diseases issued by the World Health Organization (ICD-11) will be reviewed. Furthermore, a substantial number of studies have advanced schizophrenia treatment in pharmacotherapy and psychosocial therapies, and this increasing evidence makes it ever more important to establish clear guidelines to assure the transfer of evidence-based diagnostic and therapeutic procedures into clinical practice.
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