Temporomandibular disorders: A review of current concepts in aetiology, diagnosis and management

F. P. Kapos, F. G. Exposto, J. F. Oyarzo, J. Durham

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

62 Citations (Scopus)


Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) is a collective term for a group of musculoskeletal conditions involving pain and/or dysfunction in the masticatory muscles, temporomandibular joints (TMJ) and associated structures. It is the most common type of non-odontogenic orofacial pain and patients can present with pain affecting the face/head, TMJ and/or teeth, limitations in jaw movement and sounds in the TMJ during jaw movements. Comorbid painful and non-painful conditions are also common among individuals with TMD. The diagnosis of TMD have significantly improved over time with the recent Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (DC/TMD) being reliable and valid for most common diagnoses, and an efficient way to communicate in multidisciplinary settings. This classification covers 12 most common TMD, including painful (myalgia, arthralgia and headache attributed to TMD) as well as the non-painful (disc displacements, degenerative joint disease and subluxation) TMD diagnoses. Recent studies have demonstrated that the pathophysiology of common painful TMD is biopsychosocial and multifactorial, where no one factor is responsible for its development. Importantly, research has suggested different predisposing, initiating and perpetuating factors, including both peripheral and central mechanisms. This is an active field of investigation and future studies will not only seek to clarify specific causal pathways but translate this knowledge into mechanism-directed diagnosis and treatment. In accordance with this complex aetiology, current evidence supports primarily conservative multidisciplinary treatment including self-management strategies, behavioural therapy, physical therapy and pharmacotherapy. The aim of this review is to present an overview of most recent developments in aetiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of TMD.

Translated title of the contributionTrastornos Temporomandibulares: Una revisión de conceptos actuales en etiología, diagnóstico y manejo
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)321-334
Number of pages14
JournalOral Surgery
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2020


  • aetiology
  • diagnosis
  • management
  • orofacial pain
  • temporomandibular disorders

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Oral Surgery


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