The tip of the iceberg: Emerging roles of TORC1, and its regulatory functions in plant cells

Javier Martínez Pacheco, Mariá Victoria Canal, Cintia M. Pereyra, Elina Welchen, Giselle M.A. Martínez-Noël, José M. Estevez

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Target of Rapamycin (TOR) is an evolutionarily conserved protein kinase that plays a central role in coordinating cell growth with light availability, the diurnal cycle, energy availability, and hormonal pathways. TOR Complex 1 (TORC1) controls cell proliferation, growth, metabolism, and defense in plants. Sugar availability is the main signal for activation of TOR in plants, as it also is in mammals and yeast. Specific regulators of the TOR kinase pathway in plants are inorganic compounds in the form of major nutrients in the soils, and light inputs via their impact on autotrophic metabolism. The lack of TOR is embryo-lethal in plants, whilst dysregulation of TOR signaling causes major alterations in growth and development. TOR exerts control as a regulator of protein translation via the action of proteins such as S6K, RPS6, and TAP46. Phytohormones are central players in the downstream systemic physiological TOR effects. TOR has recently been attributed to have roles in the control of DNA methylation, in the abundance of mRNA splicing variants, and in the variety of regulatory lncRNAs and miRNAs. In this review, we summarize recent discoveries in the plant TOR signaling pathway in the context of our current knowledge of mammalian and yeast cells, and highlight the most important gaps in our understanding of plants that need to be addressed in the future.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4085-4101
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Experimental Botany
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Alternative splicing
  • DNA methylation
  • hormonal regulation
  • plasmodesmata transport
  • protein translation
  • R2TPP complex
  • RNA regulation
  • subcellular localization
  • sugar signaling
  • Target of Rapamycin
  • TORC1 dimerization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Plant Science


Dive into the research topics of 'The tip of the iceberg: Emerging roles of TORC1, and its regulatory functions in plant cells'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this