The inside and outside: Topological issues in plant cell wall biosynthesis and the roles of nucleotide sugar transporters

Henry Temple, Susana Saez-Aguayo, Francisca C. Reyes, Ariel Orellana

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The cell wall is a complex extracellular matrix composed primarily of polysaccharides. Noncellulosic polysaccharides, glycoproteins and proteoglycans are synthesized in the Golgi apparatus by glycosyltransferases (GTs), which use nucleotide sugars as donors to glycosylate nascent glycan and glycoprotein acceptors that are subsequently exported to the extracellular space. Many nucleotide sugars are synthesized in the cytosol, leading to a topological issue because the active sites of most GTs are located in the Golgi lumen. Nucleotide sugar transporters (NSTs) overcome this problem by translocating nucleoside diphosphate sugars from the cytosol into the lumen of the organelle. The structures of the cell wall components synthesized in the Golgi are diverse and complex; therefore, transporter activities are necessary so that the nucleotide sugars can provide substrates for the GTs. In this review, we describe the topology of reactions involved in polysaccharide biosynthesis in the Golgi and focus on the roles of NSTs as well as their impacts on cell wall structure when they are altered.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)913-925
Number of pages13
JournalGlycobiology
Volume26
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2016

Keywords

  • Golgi
  • cell wall biosynthesis
  • glycosyltransferases
  • nucleotide sugar transporters
  • polysaccharides

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry

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