The influence of size and chemical composition of silver and gold nanoparticles on in vivo toxicity with potential applications to central nervous system diseases

Daniela F. Báez, Eduardo Gallardo-Toledo, María Paz Oyarzún, Eyleen Araya, Marcelo J. Kogan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The physicochemical and optical properties of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) and gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have allowed them to be employed for various biomedical applications, including delivery, therapy, imaging, and as theranostic agents. However, since they are foreign body systems, they are usually redistributed and accumulated in some vital organs, which can produce toxic effects; therefore, this a crucial issue that should be considered for potential clinical trials. This review aimed to summarize the reports from the past ten years that have used SNPs and GNPs for in vivo studies on the diagnosis and treatment of brain diseases and those related to the central nervous system, emphasizing their toxicity as a crucial topic address. The article focuses on the effect of the nanoparticle´s size and chemical composition as relevant parameters for in vivo toxicity. At the beginning of this review, the general toxicity and distribution studies are discussed separately for SNPs and GNPs. Subsequently, this manuscript analyzes the principal applications of both kinds of nanoparticles for glioma, neurodegenerative, and other brain diseases, and discusses the advances in clinical trials. Finally, we analyze research prospects towards clinical applications for both types of metallic nanoparticles.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2187-2201
Number of pages15
JournalInternational Journal of Nanomedicine
Volume16
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Keywords

  • Brain diseases
  • Central nervous system
  • Gold nanoparticles
  • In vivo applications
  • Silver nanoparticles
  • Toxicity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Bioengineering
  • Biomaterials
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Organic Chemistry

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