Risk Factors from Pregnancy to Adulthood in Multiple Sclerosis Outcome

Enrique González-Madrid, Ma Andreina Rangel-Ramírez, María José Mendoza-León, Oscar Álvarez-Mardones, Pablo A. González, Alexis M. Kalergis, Ma Cecilia Opazo, Claudia A. Riedel

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by a robust inflammatory response against myelin sheath antigens, which causes astrocyte and microglial activation and de-myelination of the central nervous system (CNS). Multiple genetic predispositions and environmental factors are known to influence the immune response in autoimmune diseases, such as MS, and in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model. Although the predisposition to suffer from MS seems to be a multifactorial process, a highly sensitive period is pregnancy due to factors that alter the development and differentiation of the CNS and the immune system, which increases the offspring’s susceptibility to develop MS. In this regard, there is evidence that thyroid hormone deficiency during gestation, such as hypothyroidism or hypothyroxinemia, may increase susceptibility to autoimmune diseases such as MS. In this review, we discuss the relevance of the gestational period for the development of MS in adulthood.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7080
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2022


  • experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
  • gestational period
  • hypothyroxinemia
  • immune response
  • multiple sclerosis
  • risk fac-tors
  • thyroid hormones

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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