Reduced neutralization against Delta, Gamma, Mu, and Omicron BA.1 variants of SARS-CoV-2 from previous non-Omicron infection

Paola Pidal, Jorge Fernández, Constanza Airola, Miguel Araujo, Ana María Menjiba, Héctor San Martín, Nicole Bruneau, Monserrat Balanda, Coral Elgueta, Rodrigo Fasce, María Teresa Valenzuela, Ariel Orellana, Eugenio Ramírez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


The understanding of the host immune response to SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern is critical for improving diagnostics, therapy development, and vaccines. Here, we analyzed the level of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 D614G, Delta, Gamma, Mu, and Omicron variants in D614G infected healthcare workers during a follow-up up to 6 months after recovery. We followed up 76 patients: 60.5% were women and 39.5% men. The 96.1% and 3.9% were symptomatic and asymptomatic, respectively. The most frequent symptoms were headache, myalgia, and cough. The 65.8%, 65.8%, and 92.1% of the infected individuals were positive for neutralizing antibodies against D614G variant at 2, 4, and 6 months of follow-up, respectively. The 26.3%, 48.7% and 65.8% of patients neutralized Delta variant, 19.7%, 32.9% and 52.6% of patients neutralized Gamma, 7.9%, 19.7% and 44.7% of patients neutralized Mu, and 4.0%, 9.2% and 15.8% of patients neutralized Omicron. Low neutralization against Gamma and Mu variants was observed during the follow-up, and very low against the Omicron variant was detected during the same period. The median of neutralizing antibody titers against D614G and Delta variants increased significantly during the follow-up. An association was observed between the levels of neutralizing antibodies against D614G and Delta variants and the severity of the disease. Our results suggest an immune escape from neutralizing antibodies with the Omicron variant because of the many mutations localized in the S protein.

Original languageEnglish
JournalMedical Microbiology and Immunology
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2022


  • Delta variant
  • Follow-up immune response
  • Gamma variant
  • Mu variant
  • Neutralizing antibodies
  • Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Microbiology (medical)


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