Perioperative Factors Associated with Postoperative Delirium in Patients Undergoing Noncardiac Surgery: An Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis

Behnam Sadeghirad, Benjamin T. Dodsworth, Nayeli Schmutz Gelsomino, Nicolai Goettel, Jessica Spence, Tayler A. Buchan, Holly N. Crandon, Mohammad R. Baneshi, Robert A. Pol, Baukje Brattinga, Ui Jun Park, Masanori Terashima, Louise B.D. Banning, Barbara L. Van Leeuwen, Bjørn E. Neerland, Alwin Chuan, Felipe T. Martinez, Jeroen L.A. Van Vugt, Y. Raja Rampersaud, Shingo HatakeyamaEnrico Di Stasio, Koen Milisen, Bastiaan Van Grootven, Lijckle Van Der Laan, Linda Thomson Mangnall, Sarah J. Goodlin, Diana Lungeanu, Kris Denhaerynck, Vibhawari Dhakharia, Elizabeth L. Sampson, Michael G. Zywiel, Lisa Falco, Anna Lisa V. Nguyen, Stephana J. Moss, Karla D. Krewulak, Natalia Jaworska, Kara Plotnikoff, Supun Kotteduwa-Jayawarden, Ryan Sandarage, Jason W. Busse, Lawrence Mbuagbaw

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7 Citations (Scopus)


Importance: Postoperative delirium (POD) is a common and serious complication after surgery. Various predisposing factors are associated with POD, but their magnitude and importance using an individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis have not been assessed. Objective: To identify perioperative factors associated with POD and assess their relative prognostic value among adults undergoing noncardiac surgery. Data Sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL from inception to May 2020. Study Selection: Studies were included that (1) enrolled adult patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, (2) assessed perioperative risk factors for POD, and (3) measured the incidence of delirium (measured using a validated approach). Data were analyzed in 2020. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Individual patient data were pooled from 21 studies and 1-stage meta-analysis was performed using multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression after a multivariable imputation via chained equations model to impute missing data. Main Outcomes and Measures: The end point of interest was POD diagnosed up to 10 days after a procedure. A wide range of perioperative risk factors was considered as potentially associated with POD. Results: A total of 192 studies met the eligibility criteria, and IPD were acquired from 21 studies that enrolled 8382 patients. Almost 1 in 5 patients developed POD (18%), and an increased risk of POD was associated with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) status 4 (odds ratio [OR], 2.43; 95% CI, 1.42-4.14), older age (OR for 65-85 years, 2.67; 95% CI, 2.16-3.29; OR for >85 years, 6.24; 95% CI, 4.65-8.37), low body mass index (OR for body mass index <18.5, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.64-3.09), history of delirium (OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 2.69-5.66), preoperative cognitive impairment (OR, 3.99; 95% CI, 2.94-5.43), and preoperative C-reactive protein levels (OR for 5-10 mg/dL, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.59-3.50; OR for >10 mg/dL, 3.56; 95% CI, 2.46-5.17). Completing a college degree or higher was associated with a decreased likelihood of developing POD (OR 0.45; 95% CI, 0.28-0.72). Conclusions and Relevance: In this systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data, several important factors associated with POD were found that may help identify patients at high risk and may have utility in clinical practice to inform patients and caregivers about the expected risk of developing delirium after surgery. Future studies should explore strategies to reduce delirium after surgery..

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E2337239
JournalJAMA network open
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 11 Oct 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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