Optimal antenna-height design for improved capacity on over-water radio links affected by tides

Miguel Gutierrez Gaitan, Pedro M. Santos, Luis R. Pinto, Luis Almeida

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review


Modern observation systems can be composed by heterogeneous entities (e.g., buoys, USVs, UAVs, on-shore sensors, etc.) that rely on dependable communications for coordination and data collection, often provided by over-water radio-frequency (RF) links. In tide-affected water bodies, RF links at a fixed height from the shore can experience the so-called tidal fading, a cyclic time-varying tide-induced interference. To mitigate it, the classical space-diversity reception technique (i.e., the use of two or more receiver antennas positioned at different heights) is often applied, commonly combined with the consideration of having one of the antennas at the largest possible height. Yet, this approach does not always ensure the best performance. In this work, we focus on static over-water links of short-to-medium-range distances that use antennas installed at a few meters above surface. We leverage the geometrical basis of the two-ray propagation model to investigate the optimal single-antenna height design that minimizes overall average path losses over a given tidal range. We then extend this analysis to incorporate a second receiver antenna and identify its optimal antenna height. Analytical results show that our method considerably outperforms the more classical approach, thus enabling superior (average) link capacities.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2020 Global Oceans 2020
Subtitle of host publicationSingapore - U.S. Gulf Coast
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
ISBN (Electronic)9781728154466
Publication statusPublished - 5 Oct 2020
Event2020 Global Oceans: Singapore - U.S. Gulf Coast, OCEANS 2020 - Biloxi, United States
Duration: 5 Oct 202030 Oct 2020

Publication series

Name2020 Global Oceans 2020: Singapore - U.S. Gulf Coast


Conference2020 Global Oceans: Singapore - U.S. Gulf Coast, OCEANS 2020
Country/TerritoryUnited States


  • marine communication
  • maritime networks
  • oversea paths
  • space-diversity
  • tidal fading
  • tides
  • two-ray

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oceanography
  • Automotive Engineering
  • Instrumentation
  • Signal Processing


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