New insights on the viral and host factors contributing to the airway pathogenesis caused by the respiratory syncytial virus

Margarita K. Lay, Susan M. Bueno, Nicolás Gálvez, Claudia A. Riedel, Alexis M. Kalergis

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Abstract: The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most prevalent etiological agent of lower respiratory tract infections and the first cause of hospitalization in infants due to respiratory disease worldwide. However, efforts to develop safe and effective vaccines and antivirals have been challenged by an incomplete understanding of the RSV pathogenesis and the host immune response to RSV infection in the airways. Here, we discuss recent advances in understanding the interaction between RSV and the epithelium to induce pathogenesis in the airways, such as the role of the RSV NS2 protein in the airway epithelium, as well as the events involved in the RSV entry process. In addition, we summarize the cellular factors produced by airway epithelial cells (AECs) in response to RSV infection that lead to the activation of innate and adaptive immune responses, inducing lung inflammation and disease. Further, we discuss the possible contribution of a recently identified cytokine, thymic stromal lymphopoitein (TSLP), in the lung immunopathology caused by RSV.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)800-812
Number of pages13
JournalCritical Reviews in Microbiology
Volume42
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2 Sep 2016

Keywords

  • Airways
  • nonstructural protein 2
  • respiratory syncytial virus
  • TSLP
  • viral entry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
  • Medicine(all)

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