MMP-9 Levels in the Gingival Crevicular Fluid of Chilean Rosacea Patients

Javier Fernández, Constanza Jiménez, Dafna Benadof, Paulina Morales, Jessica Astorga, Felipe Cáceres, Marcela Hernández, Alejandra Fernández, Fernando Valenzuela

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin disease whose prevalence rates remain unknown in Chile. Laboratory benchmark testing for this disease is not useful, therefore, we aimed to evaluate the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of extracellular metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 as novel rosacea biomarkers. We designed a cross-sectional study with a control group. Participants were systemically healthy adults (n = 20) and persons with rosacea (n = 18). We performed a periodontal evaluation and collected gingival crevicular fluid to measure MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels. Analysis showed mean and standard deviation of MMP-9 concentrations in the GCF for patients with rosacea was 764.52 ± 569.83 pg/mL; for healthy patients, it was 260.69 ± 170.43 pg/mL (p < 0.05). The diagnosis of rosacea was responsible for the levels of MMP-9 in the GCF (p < 0.05), as opposed to periodontitis, smoking, and age (p > 0.05). The Area under ROC for MMP-9 was 0.869 (95%, C.I: 0.719–0.956), with a sensitivity of 72.22% and specificity of 81.58% for the diagnosis of rosacea. We conclude that the quantification of MMP-9 in the GCF could be used as a biomarker of rosacea. Also, rosacea was responsible for increasing the levels of MMP-9 in the GCF independent of periodontal status.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9858
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number17
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2022


  • biomarkers
  • gingival crevicular fluid
  • rosacea

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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