Signaling by the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75) has been implicated in diverse neuronal responses, including the control of neuronal survival versus death and axonal regeneration and growth cone collapse, involving p75 in different neuropathological conditions. There are different levels of complexity regulating p75-mediated signaling. First, p75 can interact with different ligands and co-receptors in the plasma membrane, forming tripartite complexes, whose activation result in different cellular outcomes. Moreover, it was recently described that trafficking capacities of p75 in neurons are regulating, in addition to p75 downstream interactions, also the sequential cleavage of p75. The proteolytical processing of p75 involves, first, a shedding event that releases a membrane-bound carboxiterminal fragment (p75-CTF), followed by a gamma-secretase mediated cleavage, generating a soluble intracellular domain (p75-ICD) with signaling capabilities. The first shedding event, generating a p75-CTF, is the key step to regulating the production of p75-ICD, and although the generation of p75-ICD is important for both p75-mediated control of neuronal survival and the control of neurite outgrowth, little is known how both cleavage events are regulated. In this review, we argue that both sheddases and gamma-secretase are key membrane components regulating p75-mediated signaling transduction; therefore, further attention should be paid to their roles as p75 signaling regulators.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience