Masatoshi Sato

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Metacognition-often called knowledge about knowledge-is a type of individual difference that has been found to predict students’ academic achievements in various subjects (e.g., math and science). Metacognition allows students to plan, self-monitor, and self-evaluate their learning processes and products; hence, it serves a pivotal role in self-regulated learning. With the recent interest in metacognition in the field of second language (L2) learning, the chapter overviews research in educational psychology and second language acquisition. First, the chapter explores the construct of metacognition and other individual differences related to metacognition. A key difference will be highlighted between metacognitive knowledge and L2 knowledge. Second, given that metacognition is susceptible to external manipulation, the chapter zeros in on metacognitive instruction, that is, pedagogical techniques designed to increase students’ metacognition. A distinction will be made between metacognitive instruction and learning strategy instruction. The chapter includes a variety of examples of metacognitive instruction targeting specific learner variables (e.g., willingness to communicate), L2 skills (e.g., speaking), and strategies (e.g., corrective feedback). The chapter concludes with suggestions on how to incorporate metacognition in future L2 research.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe Routledge Handbook of Second Language Acquisition and Individual Differences
PublisherTaylor and Francis AS
Number of pages15
ISBN (Electronic)9781000548402
ISBN (Print)9781032219141
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Arts and Humanities
  • General Social Sciences


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