Mapping the distribution and risk factors of Anaplasmataceae in wild and domestic canines in Chile and their association with Rhipicephalus sanguineus species complex lineages

Di Cataldo S, Cevidanes A, Ulloa Contreras C, Hidalgo Hermoso E, Gargano V, Sacristán I, Sallaberry Pincheira N, Peñaloza Madrid D, González Acuña D, Napolitano C, Vianna J, Acosta Jamett G, Vicari D, Millán J

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis are members of the Anaplasmataceae family that cause disease in dogs and are mainly transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus species group ticks. We performed a cross-sectional study on these pathogens across six bioclimatic regions of Chile, including 719 free-ranging rural dogs, 132 Andean foxes (Lycalopex culpaeus), and 82 South American gray foxes (Lycalopex griseus). Dog and fox blood samples were first screened for DNA of Anaplasmataceae followed by two Ehrlichia-specific protocols. Antibodies against Anaplasma sp. and E. canis were assessed by immunofluorescence in dogs. Ectoparasites were collected and identified, with the determination of the lineages of the Rhipicephalus sanguineus species group by molecular and phylogenetic analyses. Finally, potential risk factors for infection were investigated across the different bioclimatic regions and host species. All DNA amplicons obtained from the screening protocol corresponded to Anaplasma platys. The occurrence of both A. platys DNA and antibodies was confirmed in all six bioclimatic regions, except for regions at high altitude and/or without either R. sanguineus species group lineage present. Dogs infested with R. sanguineus ticks were significantly more prone to be infected and exposed to Anaplasma spp. Prevalence of DNA was significantly higher in juvenile (19%) than in adult dogs (9%), whereas the opposite was found for seroprevalence (19% versus 35%, respectively). Overall prevalence of A. platys DNA was higher in dogs (11%) than in foxes (4%), probably owing to markedly lower tick infestations in the foxes. Ehrlichia canis DNA was not detected in any sample, and antibodies against this pathogen were detected only in four dogs, in areas with both R. sanguineus lineages present. Free-ranging dogs in Chile could be favoring the maintenance of A. platys in all areas suitable for its tick vector. Although apparently infrequent, spillovers from dogs to foxes may be taking place and should be considered in management plans in Chile.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101752
JournalTicks and Tick-borne Diseases
Volume12
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2021

Keywords

  • Anaplasmataceae
  • Carnivores
  • Rickettsiales
  • South America
  • Tick-borne

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • Microbiology
  • Insect Science
  • Infectious Diseases

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Mapping the distribution and risk factors of Anaplasmataceae in wild and domestic canines in Chile and their association with Rhipicephalus sanguineus species complex lineages'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this