Lipopolysaccharides from Porphyromonas endodontalis and Porphyromonas gingivalis promote angiogenesis via Toll-like-receptors 2 and 4 pathways in vitro

Alejandra Fernández, Daniela Herrera, Anilei Hoare, Marcela Hernández, Vicente A. Torres

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Aim: Angiogenesis contributes to the development of apical periodontitis, periodontitis, and other oral pathologies; however, it remains unclear how this process is triggered. The aim was to evaluate whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Porphyromonas endodontalis and Porphyromonas gingivalis induced angiogenesis-related effects in vitro via TLR2 and TLR4. Methodology: Porphyromonas endodontalis LPS (ATCC 35406 and clinical isolate) was purified with TRIzol, whereas P. gingivalis LPS was obtained commercially. The effects of the different LPS (24 h) in endothelial cell migration were analysed by Transwell assays, following quantification in an optical microscope (40×). The effects of LPS on FAK Y397 phosphorylation were assessed by Western blotting. Angiogenesis in vitro was determined in an endothelial tube formation assay (14 h) in Matrigel in the absence or presence of either LPS. IL-6 and VEGF-A levels were determined in cell supernatants, following 24 h treatment with LPS, and measured in multiplex bead immunoassay. The involvement of TLR2 and TLR4 was assessed with blocking antibodies. The statistical analysis was performed using STATA 12® (StataCorp LP). Results: The results revealed that P. endodontalis LPS, but not P. gingivalis LPS, stimulated endothelial cell migration. Pre-treatment with anti-TLR2 and anti-TLR4 antibodies prevented P. endodontalis LPS-induced cell migration. P. endodontalis LPS promoted FAK phosphorylation on Y397, as observed by an increased p-FAK/FAK ratio. Both P. gingivalis and P. endodontalis LPS (ATCC 35406) induced endothelial tube formation in a TLR-2 and -4-dependent manner, as shown by using blocking antibodies, however, only TLR2 blocking decreased tube formation induced by P. endodontalis (clinical isolate). Moreover, all LPS induced IL-6 and VEGF-A synthesis in endothelial cells. TLR2 and TLR4 were required for IL-6 induction by P. endodontalis LPS (ATCC 35406), while only TLR4 was involved in IL-6 secretion by the other LPS. Finally, VEGF-A synthesis did not require TLR signalling. Conclusion: Porphyromonas endodontalis and P. gingivalis LPS induced angiogenesis via TLR2 and TLR4. Collectively, these data contribute to understanding the role of LPS from Porphyromonas spp. in angiogenesis and TLR involvement.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1270-1283
Number of pages14
JournalInternational Endodontic Journal
Issue number10
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2023


  • angiogenesis inducing agents
  • interleukin-6
  • Porphyromonas endodontalis
  • Porphyromonas gingivalis
  • vascular endothelial growth factor a

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Dentistry


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