Lipopolysaccharide from Porphyromonas gingivalis, but Not from Porphyromonas endodontalis, Induces Macrophage M1 Profile

Pablo Veloso, Alejandra Fernández, Jessica Astorga, David González-Quintanilla, Alfredo Castro, Alejandro Escobar, Anilei Hoare, Marcela Hernández

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Apical Lesions of Endodontic Origin (ALEO) are initiated by polymicrobial endodontic canal infection. Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) and Porphyromonas endodontalis (Pe) lipopolysaccharides (LPS) can induce a pro-inflammatory macrophage response through their recognition by TLR2 and TLR4. However, polarization responses induced by Pg and/or Pe LPS in macrophages are not fully understood. We aimed to characterize the polarization profiles of macrophages differentiated from THP-1 cells following Pg and/or Pe LPS stimulation from reference strain and clinical isolates. A modified LPS purification protocol was implemented and the electrophoretic LPS profiles were characterized. THP-1 human monocytes differentiated to macrophages were stimulated with Pg and Pe LPS. Polarization profiles were characterized through cell surface markers and secreted cytokines levels after 24 h of stimulation. TLR2 and TLR4 cell surfaces and transcriptional levels were determined after 24 or 2 h of LPS stimulation, respectively. LPS from Pg induced a predominant M1 profile in macrophages evidenced by changes in the expression of the surface marker CD64 and pro-inflammatory cytokine profiles, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12. Pe LPS was unable to induce a significant response. TLR2 and TLR4 expressions were neither modified by Pg or Pe LPS. Pg LPS, but not Pe LPS, induced a macrophage M1 Profile.

Original languageEnglish
Article number10011
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number17
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2022


  • lipopolysaccharide
  • macrophage polarization
  • Porphyromonas endodontalis
  • Porphyromonas gingivalis
  • toll-like receptor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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