Labor force attachment among care leavers in Israel: A longitudinal cross-sequential between-groups design

Netta Achdut, Rami Benbenishty, Anat Zeira

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Little is known about the long-term labor force attachment (LFA) of care leavers and how they compare with similar youth. Objectives: This study aims to: (1) examine LFA from age 21 to 34 among care leavers and a comparison group; (2) explain variability in age-related LFA. Participants and setting: Two groups were studied: all alumni of 14 consecutive birth cohorts (1982–1995) of care leavers of youth villages in Israel (22,670) and a double-sized matched comparison group drawn from the corresponding cohorts in the general population (45,340). Methods: The study is based on a longitudinal cross-sequential between-groups design. The dataset integrates an extensive set of longitudinal administrative records. Descriptive statistic was used to describe and compare care leavers and their matched peers, in terms of background and achievements. Bivariate analyses examined differences in age-related LFA between care leavers and their matched peers. A multilevel multinomial model was employed to predict LFA levels throughout the age span. Results: In terms of achievements, care leavers show poorer educational attainment, greater reliance on social welfare services and experienced more difficulties during the mandatory military service. The rate of care leavers strongly connected to the labor market gradually increased as they grew older, reaching to about 65 % by age 34, whereas the rate of those disconnected from the labor market decreased with age, standing on 19 % by age 34. Care leavers had stronger LFA than their matched peers during their entire 20's, and similar levels thereafter. Multiple factors (e.g., family background, educational attainments) were associated with different levels of LFA. Conclusions: Differential policy measures, while in-care and afterward, are needed to address care leavers' variability in labor market experience.

Original languageEnglish
Article number105860
JournalChild Abuse and Neglect
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Care leavers
  • Employment
  • Labor force attachment
  • Longitudinal administrative data
  • Propensity score matching

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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