Implantable contraceptives for women

Olav Meirik, Ian S. Fraser, Catherine d'Arcangues, Biran Affandi, Vivian Branche, Davy Chikamata, Horacio Croxatto, Kate Curtis, Soledad Diaz, Laneta Dorflinger, Lindsay Edouard, Mawaheb Tawhid El-Mouelhy, Anibal Faundes, Henry Gabelnick, Anna Glasier, Han Li-Hui, Martha Hickey, Carlos Huezo, Alex Jordan, Rose KithinjiTekle Ab Mekbib, Suellen Miller, Nuriye Ortayli, Herbert Peterson, Ida Proemono, Kathleen Rodgers, Eka Rusdianto, Prasad Shastri, Irving Sivin

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

54 Citations (Scopus)


Progestogen-only implantable contraceptives are used by increasing numbers of women worldwide. This review outlines the evidence accumulated on these methods to date. Reviews of toxicological evaluations, clinical trials, endocrinological, epidemiological and social science studies, as well as operations research and economic evaluation were undertaken in preparation for an Expert Consultation convened by the World Health Organization in 2001. At the meeting, these reviews were further evaluated and the research results summarized in this consensus paper. A large body of evidence demonstrates the high contraceptive effectiveness and safety of the 5-year levonorgestrel-releasing implants Norplant and Jadelle. Information on the 3-year etonogestrel-releasing implant Implanon is more limited, but suggests that this implant has a high contraceptive effectiveness and a satisfactory safety profile. Information available on levonorgestrel-releasing implants manufactured and approved in China suggests that their clinical performance is satisfactory, but was insufficient to allow their full safety assessment. For all implants, there is insufficient information on their use by women with medical conditions. Provision of contraceptive implants requires good quality family planning services and specific provider training.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)49-59
Number of pages11
JournalHuman Reproduction Update
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2003


  • Contraception
  • Implant
  • Progestogen-only contraceptive
  • WHO consensus paper

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology


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