Hydrogeochemistry and Water Quality Assessment in the Thamirabarani River Stretch by Applying GIS and PCA Techniques

Esakkimuthu Tharmar, Marykutty Abraham, Ramaiah Prakash, Akila Sundaram, Erick Saavedra Flores, Cristian Canales, Mohammad Ayaz Alam

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


The primary objective of this research is to assess the hydrogeochemical features and water quality of the Thamirabarani river stretch, located in southern India. Thirty-five water samples from the Thamirabarani river stretch were obtained from the districts of Tirunelveli and Thoothukudi. Twelve water quality parameters were measured during the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon periods of 2020 and 2021. The analytical results were verified with BIS and WHO standards to evaluate the water for drinking purposes. A Geographic Information system (GIS) was applied to know the spatial variation of the hydrogeochemical properties over the research area. Moreover, the Water Quality Index was calculated and it was revealed that 15% of the water samples used are outstanding, 35% are fit for potable use, 25% are poor, 15% water are very poor, and 10% unfit for consumption. Principal Component analysis (PCA) was performed to find out the dominant factors and their variance coverage for the overall water quality. The PCA results indicate that a water sample in Zone 1 is known for its alkalinity. The water qualities in Zone 2 and Zone 3 were affected by anthropogenic factors and industry wastes. More sea water intrusion was observed in Zone 4 in the water quality of the Thamirabarani river basin.

Original languageEnglish
Article number16368
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number24
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • geographical information system
  • physicochemical study
  • principal component analysis
  • Thamirabarani river basin
  • water quality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Building and Construction
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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