High-speed resistance training is more effective than low-speed resistance training to increase functional capacity and muscle performance in older women

Rodrigo Ramírez-Campillo, Angélica Castillo, Carlos I. de la Fuente, Christian Campos-Jara, David C. Andrade, Cristian Álvarez, Cristian Martínez, Mauricio Castro-Sepúlveda, Ana Pereira, Mário C. Marques, Mikel Izquierdo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

126 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: To examine the effects of 12weeks of high-speed resistance training (RT) versus low-speed RT on muscle strength [one repetition of maximum leg-press (1RMLP) and bench-press (1RMBP), plus dominant (HGd) and non-dominant maximum isometric handgrip], power [counter-movement jump (CMJ), ball throwing (BT) and 10-m walking sprint (S10)], functional performance [8-foot up-and-go test (UG) and sit-to-stand test (STS)], and perceived quality of life in older women. Methods: 45 older women were divided into a high-speed RT group [EG, n. = 15, age. = 66.3. ±. 3.7. y], a low-speed RT group [SG, n. = 15, age. = 68.7. ±. 6.4. y] and a control group [CG, n. = 15, age. = 66.7. ±. 4.9. y]. The SG and EG were submitted to a similar 12-week RT program [3 sets of 8 reps at 40-75% of the one-repetition maximum (1. <. RM), CMJ and BT] using slow, controlled (3. s) concentric muscle actions for the SG and using fast, explosive (<. 1. s) concentric muscle actions for the EG (20% less work per exercise without CMJ and BT). Results: Over the 12-week training period, both RT groups showed small to large clinically significant improvements in the dependent variables; however, a significant difference was found between the EG and SG for the performance changes in BT, S10 and UG (20% vs. 11%, p. <. 0.05; 14% vs. 9%, p. <. 0.05; 18% vs. 10%, p. <. 0.01; respectively). No significant changes were observed for the CG. Conclusion: Both RT interventions are effective in improving functional capacity, muscle performance and quality of life in older women, although a high-speed RT program induces greater improvements in muscle power and functional capacity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)51-57
Number of pages7
JournalExperimental Gerontology
Volume58
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2014

Keywords

  • Adaptation
  • Aging
  • Power output
  • Resistance training
  • Women

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Ageing
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Endocrinology
  • Cell Biology

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