Hypothyroxinemia (Hpx) is a highly frequent condition characterized by low thyroxine (T4) and normal 3,3′,5′-triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in the blood. Gestational Hpx is closely related to cognitive impairment in the human offspring. In animal models gestational Hpx causes impairment at glutamatergic synapsis, spatial learning, and the susceptibility to suffer strong autoimmune diseases like experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, the mechanisms underlying these phenotypes are unknown. On the other hand, it has been shown that astrocytes and microglia affect the outcome of EAE. In fact, the activation of astrocytes and microglia in the central nervous system (CNS) contributes to EAE progression. Thus, in this work, the reactivity of astrocytes and microglia from rats gestated in Hpx was evaluated aiming to understand whether these cells are targets of gestational Hpx. Interestingly, microglia derived from the offspring gestated in Hpx were less reactive compared to microglia derived from offspring gestated in euthyroidism. Instead, astrocytes derived from the offspring gestated in Hpx were significantly more reactive than the astrocytes from the offspring gestated in euthyroidism. This work contributes with novel information regarding the effects of gestational Hpx over astrocytes and microglia in the offspring. It suggests that astrocyte could react strongly to an inflammatory insult inducing neuronal death in the CNS.
- Gestational hypothyroxinemia
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience