Gestational Hypothyroxinemia Imprints a Switch in the Capacity of Astrocytes and Microglial Cells of the Offspring to React in Inflammation

María C. Opazo, Pablo A. González, Betsi D. Flores, Luis F. Venegas, Eduardo A. Albornoz, Pablo Cisternas, Karen Bohmwald, Pamela A. Nieto, Susan M. Bueno, Alexis M. Kalergis, Claudia A. Riedel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Hypothyroxinemia (Hpx) is a highly frequent condition characterized by low thyroxine (T4) and normal 3,3′,5′-triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in the blood. Gestational Hpx is closely related to cognitive impairment in the human offspring. In animal models gestational Hpx causes impairment at glutamatergic synapsis, spatial learning, and the susceptibility to suffer strong autoimmune diseases like experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, the mechanisms underlying these phenotypes are unknown. On the other hand, it has been shown that astrocytes and microglia affect the outcome of EAE. In fact, the activation of astrocytes and microglia in the central nervous system (CNS) contributes to EAE progression. Thus, in this work, the reactivity of astrocytes and microglia from rats gestated in Hpx was evaluated aiming to understand whether these cells are targets of gestational Hpx. Interestingly, microglia derived from the offspring gestated in Hpx were less reactive compared to microglia derived from offspring gestated in euthyroidism. Instead, astrocytes derived from the offspring gestated in Hpx were significantly more reactive than the astrocytes from the offspring gestated in euthyroidism. This work contributes with novel information regarding the effects of gestational Hpx over astrocytes and microglia in the offspring. It suggests that astrocyte could react strongly to an inflammatory insult inducing neuronal death in the CNS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4373-4387
Number of pages15
JournalMolecular Neurobiology
Volume55
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2018

Keywords

  • Astrocytes
  • EAE
  • Gestational hypothyroxinemia
  • Microglia
  • Neuron

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

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