Fecal carriage of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in hospital and community settings in Chad

Oumar Ouchar Mahamat, Abdelsalam Tidjani, Manon Lounnas, Mallorie Hide, Julio Benavides, Calèbe Somasse, Abdoul Salam Ouedraogo, Soufiane Sanou, Christian Carrière, Anne Laure Bañuls, Hélène Jean-Pierre, Yann Dumont, Sylvain Godreuil

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Fecal carriage of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) remains poorly documented in Africa. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of ESBL-PE fecal carriage in Chad. Methods: In total, 200 fresh stool samples were collected from 100 healthy community volunteers and 100 hospitalized patients from January to March 2017. After screening using ESBL-selective agar plates and species identification by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, antibiotic susceptibility was tested using the disk diffusion method, and ESBL production confirmed with the double-disc synergy test. The different ESBL genes in potential ESBL-producing isolates were detected by PCR and double stranded DNA sequencing. Escherichia coli phylogenetic groups were determined using a PCR-based method. Results: ESBL-PE fecal carriage prevalence was 44.5% (51% among hospitalized patients vs 38% among healthy volunteers; p < 0.05). ESBL-producing isolates were mostly Escherichia coli (64/89) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (16/89). PCR and sequencing showed that 98.8% (87/89) of ESBL-PE harbored bla CTX-M genes: bla CTX-M-15 in 94.25% (82/87) and bla CTX-M-14 in 5.75% (5/87). Phylogroup determination by quadruplex PCR indicated that ESBL-producing E. coli isolates belonged to group A (n = 17; 27%), C (n = 17; 27%), B2 (n = 9; 14%), B1 (n = 8; 13%), D (n = 8; 13%), E (n = 1; 1.6%), and F (n = 1; 1.6%). The ST131 clone was identified in 100% (9/9) of E. coli B2 strains. Conclusions: The high fecal carriage rate of ESBL-PE associated with CTX-M-15 in hospital and community settings of Chad highlights the risk for resistance transmission between non-pathogenic and pathogenic bacteria.

Original languageEnglish
Article number169
JournalAntimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 31 Oct 2019


  • Chad
  • Enterobacteriaceae
  • ESBL
  • Fecal carriage

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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