Exploration of the potential energy surface in mixed Zintl clusters applying an automatic Johnson polyhedra generator: the case of arachno E6M24− (E = Si, Ge, Sn; M = Sb, Bi)

Rodrigo Báez-Grez, Diego Inostroza, Alejandro Vásquez-Espinal, Rafael Islas, Ricardo Pino-Rios

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

A new algorithm called Automatic Johnson Cluster Generator (AJCG) is presented, which, as its name indicates, allows the definition of the desired Johnson polyhedron to subsequently carry out all the possible permutations between the atoms that form this polyhedron. This new algorithm allows the exhaustive study of the structures' potential energy surface (PES). In addition, the AJCG algorithm is helpful for the study of three-dimensional compounds such as boranes or Zintl clusters and their structural derivatives with two or more different atoms. The automatic filling of vertices is particularly useful in mixed compounds because of the possibility of taking into account all possible configurations in the structure. As a test system, we investigated the arachno-type E6M24− (E = Si, Ge, Sn; M = Sb, Bi) structure which has eight vertices and complies with Wade-Mingos rules. Initially, we defined a bipyramidal structure (10 vertices), and filled the vertices with the atoms in all possible configurations. Since the selected system has eight atoms, the two remaining vertices were filled with pseudo atoms to complete the structure. After re-optimizing the initial population generated with AJCG, a large number of isomers with energy below 10 kcal mol−1 are identified. These results show that the most stable isomers possess homonuclear M-M bonds, except Sn6Bi24−. Although the overall putative minima differ at the PBE0-D3 and DLPNO-CCSD(T) levels, they are always competitive minima. In addition to using high-precision methodologies to correctly study relative energies, applying solvent effects in highly charged systems becomes mandatory. The aromatic character of these studied systems was demonstrated qualitatively with two- and three-dimensional mapping and quantitatively by calculating the value of the z-component of the induced magnetic field at the cage center, including scalar and spin-orbit correction for relativistic effects. The compounds studied have a high degree of aromaticity, which allows us to establish that despite structural modifications (i.e., from closo to arachno), the aromaticity is preserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)24499-24504
Number of pages6
JournalRSC Advances
Volume13
Issue number35
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Aug 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Chemical Engineering

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Exploration of the potential energy surface in mixed Zintl clusters applying an automatic Johnson polyhedra generator: the case of arachno E6M24− (E = Si, Ge, Sn; M = Sb, Bi)'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this