Endotoxemia-induced endothelial fibrosis inhibition improves hypotension, tachycardia, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, cytokine response, oxidative stress, and survival

Alejandro Vallejos, Pedro Olivares, Sebastian Gatica, Vicente Villegas, Cesar Echeverria, Claudio Cabello-Verrugio, Felipe Simon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Sepsis syndrome is the leading cause of mortality in critically ill patients admitted to intensive care. However, current therapies for sepsis treatment are unsatisfactory, and the mortality rate is still high. The main pathological characteristics observed during sepsis syndrome and endotoxemia include hypotension, tachycardia, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), tissue damage, and cytokine and oxidative bursts. These conditions severely decrease the survival rates of endotoxemic patients. As a consequence of endotoxemia, large amounts of endotoxin circulate in the bloodstream throughout the vascular system and interact directly with endothelial cells that cover the inner wall of blood vessels. Endothelial cells exposed to lipopolysaccharides exhibit conversion to activated fibroblasts. By means of endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis, endothelial cells downregulate the expression of endothelial proteins and express fibrotic and ECM markers throughout endothelial protein expression reprogramming. Although endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis should, in theory, be detrimental to endothelial vascular function, the role of endothelial fibrosis in sepsis syndrome or endotoxemia is not known. Therefore, we employed a rat model to investigate whether the inhibition of endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis protects against endotoxemia and whether this inhibition increases survival. Our results show that the inhibition of endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis reduced both hypotension and tachycardia. Endotoxemia-induced MODS was also decreased when endothelial fibrosis was inhibited; treated rats showed normal kidney and liver function, inhibition of muscle mass wasting and normal glycemia. Liver and kidney histology was preserved, and organ fibrosis and fibrotic protein expression were reduced. Furthermore, pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and NOX-2-mediated oxidative stress bursts were decreased when endothelial fibrosis was inhibited. Remarkably, the risk of death associated with sepsis syndrome at early and late time points was decreased when endotoxemia-induced endothelial fibrosis was inhibited, and a significant increase in survival was observed. These results reveal a potential novel treatment strategy to protect against sepsis syndrome and endotoxemia.

Original languageEnglish
JournalLaboratory Investigation
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019

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Endotoxemia
Multiple Organ Failure
Tachycardia
Hypotension
Oxidative Stress
Fibrosis
Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
Cytokines
Survival
Endotoxins
Blood Vessels
Respiratory Burst
Endothelial Cells
Kidney
Proteins
Mortality
Liver
Critical Care
Critical Illness
Lipopolysaccharides

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

Cite this

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title = "Endotoxemia-induced endothelial fibrosis inhibition improves hypotension, tachycardia, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, cytokine response, oxidative stress, and survival",
abstract = "Sepsis syndrome is the leading cause of mortality in critically ill patients admitted to intensive care. However, current therapies for sepsis treatment are unsatisfactory, and the mortality rate is still high. The main pathological characteristics observed during sepsis syndrome and endotoxemia include hypotension, tachycardia, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), tissue damage, and cytokine and oxidative bursts. These conditions severely decrease the survival rates of endotoxemic patients. As a consequence of endotoxemia, large amounts of endotoxin circulate in the bloodstream throughout the vascular system and interact directly with endothelial cells that cover the inner wall of blood vessels. Endothelial cells exposed to lipopolysaccharides exhibit conversion to activated fibroblasts. By means of endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis, endothelial cells downregulate the expression of endothelial proteins and express fibrotic and ECM markers throughout endothelial protein expression reprogramming. Although endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis should, in theory, be detrimental to endothelial vascular function, the role of endothelial fibrosis in sepsis syndrome or endotoxemia is not known. Therefore, we employed a rat model to investigate whether the inhibition of endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis protects against endotoxemia and whether this inhibition increases survival. Our results show that the inhibition of endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis reduced both hypotension and tachycardia. Endotoxemia-induced MODS was also decreased when endothelial fibrosis was inhibited; treated rats showed normal kidney and liver function, inhibition of muscle mass wasting and normal glycemia. Liver and kidney histology was preserved, and organ fibrosis and fibrotic protein expression were reduced. Furthermore, pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and NOX-2-mediated oxidative stress bursts were decreased when endothelial fibrosis was inhibited. Remarkably, the risk of death associated with sepsis syndrome at early and late time points was decreased when endotoxemia-induced endothelial fibrosis was inhibited, and a significant increase in survival was observed. These results reveal a potential novel treatment strategy to protect against sepsis syndrome and endotoxemia.",
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Endotoxemia-induced endothelial fibrosis inhibition improves hypotension, tachycardia, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, cytokine response, oxidative stress, and survival. / Vallejos, Alejandro; Olivares, Pedro; Gatica, Sebastian; Villegas, Vicente; Echeverria, Cesar; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio; Simon, Felipe.

In: Laboratory Investigation, 01.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Endotoxemia-induced endothelial fibrosis inhibition improves hypotension, tachycardia, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, cytokine response, oxidative stress, and survival

AU - Vallejos, Alejandro

AU - Olivares, Pedro

AU - Gatica, Sebastian

AU - Villegas, Vicente

AU - Echeverria, Cesar

AU - Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio

AU - Simon, Felipe

PY - 2019/1/1

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N2 - Sepsis syndrome is the leading cause of mortality in critically ill patients admitted to intensive care. However, current therapies for sepsis treatment are unsatisfactory, and the mortality rate is still high. The main pathological characteristics observed during sepsis syndrome and endotoxemia include hypotension, tachycardia, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), tissue damage, and cytokine and oxidative bursts. These conditions severely decrease the survival rates of endotoxemic patients. As a consequence of endotoxemia, large amounts of endotoxin circulate in the bloodstream throughout the vascular system and interact directly with endothelial cells that cover the inner wall of blood vessels. Endothelial cells exposed to lipopolysaccharides exhibit conversion to activated fibroblasts. By means of endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis, endothelial cells downregulate the expression of endothelial proteins and express fibrotic and ECM markers throughout endothelial protein expression reprogramming. Although endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis should, in theory, be detrimental to endothelial vascular function, the role of endothelial fibrosis in sepsis syndrome or endotoxemia is not known. Therefore, we employed a rat model to investigate whether the inhibition of endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis protects against endotoxemia and whether this inhibition increases survival. Our results show that the inhibition of endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis reduced both hypotension and tachycardia. Endotoxemia-induced MODS was also decreased when endothelial fibrosis was inhibited; treated rats showed normal kidney and liver function, inhibition of muscle mass wasting and normal glycemia. Liver and kidney histology was preserved, and organ fibrosis and fibrotic protein expression were reduced. Furthermore, pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and NOX-2-mediated oxidative stress bursts were decreased when endothelial fibrosis was inhibited. Remarkably, the risk of death associated with sepsis syndrome at early and late time points was decreased when endotoxemia-induced endothelial fibrosis was inhibited, and a significant increase in survival was observed. These results reveal a potential novel treatment strategy to protect against sepsis syndrome and endotoxemia.

AB - Sepsis syndrome is the leading cause of mortality in critically ill patients admitted to intensive care. However, current therapies for sepsis treatment are unsatisfactory, and the mortality rate is still high. The main pathological characteristics observed during sepsis syndrome and endotoxemia include hypotension, tachycardia, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), tissue damage, and cytokine and oxidative bursts. These conditions severely decrease the survival rates of endotoxemic patients. As a consequence of endotoxemia, large amounts of endotoxin circulate in the bloodstream throughout the vascular system and interact directly with endothelial cells that cover the inner wall of blood vessels. Endothelial cells exposed to lipopolysaccharides exhibit conversion to activated fibroblasts. By means of endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis, endothelial cells downregulate the expression of endothelial proteins and express fibrotic and ECM markers throughout endothelial protein expression reprogramming. Although endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis should, in theory, be detrimental to endothelial vascular function, the role of endothelial fibrosis in sepsis syndrome or endotoxemia is not known. Therefore, we employed a rat model to investigate whether the inhibition of endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis protects against endotoxemia and whether this inhibition increases survival. Our results show that the inhibition of endotoxin-induced endothelial fibrosis reduced both hypotension and tachycardia. Endotoxemia-induced MODS was also decreased when endothelial fibrosis was inhibited; treated rats showed normal kidney and liver function, inhibition of muscle mass wasting and normal glycemia. Liver and kidney histology was preserved, and organ fibrosis and fibrotic protein expression were reduced. Furthermore, pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and NOX-2-mediated oxidative stress bursts were decreased when endothelial fibrosis was inhibited. Remarkably, the risk of death associated with sepsis syndrome at early and late time points was decreased when endotoxemia-induced endothelial fibrosis was inhibited, and a significant increase in survival was observed. These results reveal a potential novel treatment strategy to protect against sepsis syndrome and endotoxemia.

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