Effects of complex-contrast training on physical fitness in male field hockey athletes

Rohit K. Thapa, Gopal Kumar, Anthony Weldon, Jason Moran, Helmi Chaabene, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Study aim: This study aimed to examine the effects of a six-week complex-contrast training (CCT) intervention on the physical fitness of male field hockey athletes. Material and methods: Participants were randomized into a CCT (n = 8) or control (CG; n = 6) group. Physical fitness was assessed pre- and post-six-week intervention using a 30 m linear sprint test, medicine ball throw, standing long jump (SLJ), countermovement jump with arm swing (CMJA), modified T-test (MAT), and unilateral isokinetic maximal strength test (knee flexion and extension) of both legs. The six-week CCT intervention was integrated as three weekly sessions within the sport-specific training schedule of field hockey athletes. Each session included four contrast pair exercises (e.g., squat + squat jump). ANCOVA with baseline scores as a covariate was used to analyze the specific training effects. Results: Significant differences between CCT and CG were observed in the 30 m sprint, CMJA, MAT, and isokinetic strength (p < 0.001-0.013) after the intervention, favoring the CCT group. Further, post-hoc analyses revealed significant pre to post improvements in all dependent variables for the CCT group (p < 0.001-0.001; effect size [g] = 0.28-2.65; %Δ= 3.1-16.3), but not in the CG (p = 0.169-0.991; g = 0.00-0.32; %Δ= 0.0-2.6). Conclusion: Supplementing regular field hockey training with CCT is recommended as an effective training strategy to improve the performance of linear sprints, vertical jumps, changes of direction, and muscle strength in amateur male field hockey athletes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)201-210
Number of pages10
JournalBiomedical Human Kinetics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2023


  • Athletic performance
  • Exercise
  • Human physical conditioning
  • Muscle strength
  • Plyometric exercise
  • Resistance training

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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