A review of available stratigraphic, structural, and magmatic evolution in northernmost Chile, and adjacent Peru and Bolivia shows that in this region: (1) compression on the Paleogene intra-arc during the middle Eocene Incaic phase formed the NNE-SSW-oriented Incaic range along the present-day Precordillera and Western Cordillera, and (2) post-Incaic tectonic conditions remained compressive until present, contrasting with other regions of the Andes, where extensional episodes occurred during part of this time lapse. A late Oligocene-early Miocene peak of deformation caused further uplift. The Incaic range formed a pop-up structure bounded by two thrusts systems of diverging vergencies; it represented a major paleogeographic feature that separated two domains with different tectonic and paleogeographic evolutions, and probably formed the Andean water divide. This range has been affected by intense erosion and was symmetrically flanked by two major basins, the Pampa del Tamarugal and the Altiplano. Magmatic activity remained located along the previous Late Cretaceous-early Eocene arc with slight eastward shift. Further compression caused westvergent thrusting and uplift along the western Eastern Cordillera bounding the Altiplano basin to the east by another pop-up shaped ridge. Eastward progression of deformation caused eastvergent thrusting of the Eastern Cordillera and Subandean zone.
- Central Andes
- Incaic range
- Tectonic evolution
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)