CAPOS: The bulge Cluster APOgee Survey: II: The intriguing "sequoia" globular cluster FSR 1758

María Romero-Colmenares, José G. Fernández-Trincado, Doug Geisler, Stefano O. Souza, Sandro Villanova, Penélope Longa-Peña, Dante Minniti, Timothy C. Beers, Cristian Moni Bidin, Angeles Perez-Villegas, Edmundo Moreno, Elisa R. Garro, Ian Baeza, Lady Henao, Beatriz Barbuy, Javier Alonso-García, Roger E. Cohen, Richard R. Lane, Cesar Muñoz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


We present results from a study of 15 red giant members of the intermediate-metallicity globular cluster (GC) FSR 1758 using high-resolution, near-infrared spectra collected with the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment II survey (APOGEE-2) that were obtained as part of CAPOS (the bulge Cluster APOgee Survey). Since its very recent discovery as a massive GC in the bulge region, evoking the name Sequoia, this has been an intriguing object with a highly debated origin, and initially led to the suggestion of a purported progenitor dwarf galaxy of the same name. In this work, we use new spectroscopic and astrometric data to provide additional clues as to the nature of FSR 1758. Our study confirms the GC nature of FSR 1758, and as such we report the existence of the characteristic N-C anticorrelation and Al-N correlation for the first time. We thereby reveal the existence of the multiple-population phenomenon, similar to that observed in virtually all GCs. Furthermore, the presence of a population with strongly enriched aluminum makes it unlikely that FSR 1758 is the remnant nucleus of a dwarf galaxy because Al-enhanced stars are uncommon in dwarf galaxies. We find that FSR 1758 is slightly more metal rich than previously reported in the literature; this source has a mean metallicity [Fe/H] between -1.43 to -1.36, depending on the adopted atmospheric parameters and a scatter within observational error, again pointing to its GC nature. Overall, the α-enrichment ( + 0.3 dex), Fe-peak (Fe, Ni), light (C, N), and odd-Z (Al) elements follow the trend of intermediate-metallicity GCs. Isochrone fitting in the Gaia bands yields an estimated age of ∼11.6 Gyr. We used the exquisite kinematic data, including our CAPOS radial velocities and Gaia eDR3 proper motions, to constrain the N-body density profile of FSR 1758, and found that it is as massive (∼2.9 ± 0.6 × 105 Mpdbl) as NGC 6752. We confirm a retrograde and eccentric orbit for FSR 1758. A new examination of its dynamical properties with the GravPot16 model favors an association with the Gaia-Enceladus-Sausage accretion event. Thus, paradoxically, the cluster that gave rise to the name of the Sequoia dwarf galaxy does not appear to belong to this specific merging event.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberA158
JournalAstronomy and Astrophysics
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2021


  • Galaxies: clusters: individual: FSR 1758
  • Stars: abundances
  • Stars: chemically peculiar
  • Techniques: spectroscopic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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