An assessment of esophageal balloon use for the titration of airway pressure release ventilation and controlled mechanical ventilation in a patient with extrapulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome: a case report

Óscar Arellano-Pérez, Felipe Castillo Merino, Roberto Torres-Tejeiro, Sebastián Ugarte Ubiergo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Esophageal pressure measurement is a minimally invasive monitoring process that assesses respiratory mechanics in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Airway pressure release ventilation is a relatively new positive pressure ventilation modality, characterized by a series of advantages in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Case presentation: We report a case of a 55-year-old chilean female, with preexisting hypertension and recurrent renal colic who entered the cardiosurgical intensive care unit with signs and symptoms of urinary sepsis secondary to a right-sided obstructive urolithiasis. At the time of admission, the patient showed signs of urinary sepsis, a poor overall condition, hemodynamic instability, tachycardia, hypotension, and needed vasoactive drugs. Initially the patient was treated with volume control ventilation. Then, ventilation was with conventional ventilation parameters described by the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network. However, hemodynamic complications led to reduced airway pressure. Later she presented intraabdominal hypertension that compromised the oxygen supply and her ventilation management. Considering these records, an esophageal manometry was used to measure distending lung pressure, that is, transpulmonary pressure, to protect lungs. Initial use of the esophageal balloon was in a volume-controlled modality (deep sedation), which allowed the medical team to perform inspiratory and expiratory pause maneuvers to monitor transpulmonary plateau pressure as a substitute for pulmonary distension and expiratory pause and determine transpulmonary positive end-expiratory pressure. On the third day of mechanical respiration, the modality was switched to airway pressure release ventilation. The use of airway pressure release ventilation was associated with reduced hemodynamic complications and kept transpulmonary pressure between 0 and 20 cmH2O despite a sustained high positive end-expiratory pressure of 20 cmH2O. Conclusion: The application of this technique is shown in airway pressure release ventilation with spontaneous ventilation, which is then compared with a controlled modality that requires a lesser number of sedative doses and vasoactive drugs, without altering the criteria for lung protection as guided by esophageal manometry.

Original languageEnglish
Article number435
JournalJournal of Medical Case Reports
Volume15
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021

Keywords

  • ARDS
  • Esophageal balloon
  • Mechanical ventilation
  • Transpulmonary pressure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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