A Generalized Simplified Virtual Vector PWM to Balance the Capacitor Voltages of Multilevel Diode-Clamped Converters

Muhammad Attique Qamar, Kui Wang, Zedong OJ GAE Zheng, Hong Zhu, Yongdong Li, Jose Rodriguez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents a generalized simplified virtual vector PWM (SVVPWM) to attain the capacitor voltage balancing of multilevel diode-clamped converter (DCC) for all operational conditions, which is not possible by using conventional space vector PWM (CSVPWM) and carrier-based PWM (CBPWM) methods. Virtual vector PWM (VVPWM) is a solution presented in literature to sort out this issue but it becomes more complex for higher-level converters. The proposed SVVPWM method is simple and easy to implement for any level converter because it converts the space vector diagram of any level converter to three level space vector diagram. The SVVPWM assures the natural voltage balancing under steady states and ideal operations. Under dynamic operations, a generalized equation that describes the influence of neutral point currents on dc-link capacitors voltage has been derived and a general decoupled voltage balancing control for n-level DCC is presented. The proposed modulation method is implemented on five level and seven level DCCs to authenticate the effectiveness of decoupled voltage balancing control. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed modulation strategy is easy to implement and effectively controls the balance of the capacitor voltages for whole range of modulation index and load power factor.

Original languageEnglish
JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Electronics
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2022


  • Aerospace electronics
  • capacitor voltage balancing
  • Capacitors
  • conventional space vector PWM (CSVPWM)
  • diode-clamped converter
  • Heuristic algorithms
  • Pulse width modulation
  • Reactive power
  • simplified virtual vector PWM (SVVPWM)
  • Switches
  • Voltage control

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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